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Table 2 Univariate analyses of the risk factors associated with postoperative DVT following femoral shaft fracture

From: The incidence and risk factors of deep venous thrombosis in lower extremities following surgically treated femoral shaft fracture: a retrospective case-control study

Variables No. (%) of DVT (n = 48) No. (%) of non-DVT (n = 260) P
Sex (male) 37 (77.1) 174 (66.9) 0.164
Living area    0.493
 Rural 37 (77.1) 88 (72.3)  
 Urban 11 (22.9) 72 (27.7)  
Age 48.94 ± 16.7 43.70 ± 19.0 0.075
 > 35 years 39 (81.3) 144 (55.4) 0.001#
BMI (kg/m2)    0.486
 < 18.5 1 (2.1) 10 (3.8)  
 18.5–23.9 14 (29.2) 98 (37.7)  
 24.0–27.9 23 (47.9) 115 (44.2)  
 ≥ 28.0 10 (20.8) 37 (14.2)  
Diabetes mellitus 8 (16.7) 21 (8.1) 0.061
Hypertension 9 (18.8) 60 (23.1) 0.509
Arrhythmia 1 (2.1) 6 (2.3) 0.924
Chronic pulmonary disease 1 (2.1) 1 (0.4) 0.178
Liver disease 2 (4.2) 6 (2.3) 0.457
Current smoking 10 (20.8) 31 (11.9) 0.095
Alcohol consumption 7 (14.6) 28 (10.8) 0.444
Preoperative stay, days 6.38 ± 5.2 6.88 ± 6.3 0.597
Total hospital stay, days 26.19 ± 15.0 21.54 ± 26.8 0.254
ASA classification    0.115
 I 3 (6.3) 34 (13.1)  
 II 27 (56.3) 168 (64.6)  
 III 16 (33.3) 50 (19.2)  
 IV 2 (4.2) 8 (3.1)  
Anesthesia (general) 34 (70.8) 155 (59.6) 0.143
Type of osteosynthesis    0.245
 Intramedullary nailing 32 (66.7) 150 (57.7)  
 ORIF with plate and screws 16 (33.3) 110 (42.3)  
Intra-op blood loss, ml 700.00 ± 471.4 495.54 ± 350.1 0.006
 > 550 ml 27 (56.3) 87 (33.5) 0.003#
Volume of intra-op transfusion 424.96 ± 634.4 360.8 ± 501.0 0.197
Surgical duration, min 194.79 ± 76.1 181.87 ± 81.1 0.307
TP (< 60 g/l) 29 (60.4) 153 (58.8) 0.839
ALB (< 35 g/l) 32 (66.7) 145 (55.8) 0.161
ALT (> upper limit) 15 (31.3) 74 (28.5) 0.695
AST (> upper limit) 10 (20.8) 91 (35.0) 0.055
HDL-C (< 1.1 mmol/l) 72 (56.3) 147 (56.5) 0.970
LDL-C (> 3.37 mmol/l) 4 (8.3) 24 (9.2) 0.842
VLDL (> 0.78 mmol/l) 10 (20.8) 30 (11.5) 0.078
Na+ (< 135 mmol/l) 13 (27.1) 72 (27.7) 0.931
WBC (> 10 × 109/l) 16 (33.3) 106 (40.8) 0.333
NEU (> 6.3 × 109/l) 29 (60.4) 165 (63.5) 0.688
LYM (< 1.1 × 109/l) 21 (43.8) 113 (43.5) 0.970
RBC < lower limit 42 (87.5) 207 (79.6) 0.202
HGB < lower limit 42 (87.5) 201 (77.3) 0.112
PLT (> 350 × 109/l) 10 (20.8) 51 (19.6) 0.846
d-dimer 2.10 ± 2.1 1.02 ± 1.3 0.001
 > 1.09 μg/ml 28 (58.3) 66 (25.4) < 0.001#
  1. Note: ALT, reference range: female, 7–40 U/l; male, 9–50 U/l. AST, reference range: female, 13–35 U/l; male, 15–40 U/l. RBC, reference range: female, 3.5–5.0 × 1012/l; males, 4.0–5.5 × 1012/l. HGB, reference range: females, 110–150 g/l; males, 120–160 g/l
  2. #ROC analysis results