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Table 5 Synthesis of results

From: The relationship between thoracic kyphosis and age, and normative values across age groups: a systematic review of healthy adults

  Sample size Number of studies Results Publication bias Inconsistency (-) Imprecision (-) Indirectness Study limitations/quality Effect size/dose response Possible confounding/bias Overall quality
Consistency (+) Precision (+)
Correlation
Kyphosis and age
6793 30 Table 4 ND (+)
All correlations had positive sign
T1–T12: p > 0.05 (−)
T2–T12: p > 0.05 (−)
T4–T12: p < 0.05 (+)
T5–T12: p < 0.05 (+)
None (+)
9 HQ, 21 MQ
N/A   (+)(+)(+)
Moderate
Reference values 6793 30 Table 4 ND (−)
Statistical significance was achieved in 6 out of 16 cases.
(−)
Ranges did not overlap in 2 out of 6 cases. The between-range difference was always smaller than the SEM.
None (+)
9 HQ, 21 MQ
N/A (+)
12 articles divided sample by age groups
(+)(+)
Low
Ethnic group differences 5788 25 Table 4 ND (−)
Statistical significance was achieved in 6 out of 9 cases.
(−)
Ranges did not overlap in 2 out of 6 cases. In 1 of the 2 cases, the between-range difference was greater than the SEM.
None (+)
8 HQ, 17 MQ
N/A (+)
14 articles specified the ethnicity of their sample
(+)(+)
Low
Gender differences 3937 13 Table 4 ND (+)
No between-group comparisons achieved statistical significance
(−) None (+)
3 HQ, 10 MQ
N/A   (+)(+)(+)
Moderate
  1. ND not detected, HQ high-quality, MQ moderate quality, N/A not applicable, T thoracic vertebra, SEM standard error of measurement