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Table 2 Study characteristics and individual studies results

From: The relationship between thoracic kyphosis and age, and normative values across age groups: a systematic review of healthy adults

Authors and year Type of measurement Results Sample size Age (SD) Age range Gender Ethnicity BMI (SD) Study design
Kyphosis (SD) (degrees/cm)
Amabile et al. 2016 [56] Cobb T1–T12 49 (±13) 69 26.3 18–40 Mix Europeans   Retrospective, observational
Cobb T4–T12 35.1 (±11.5)
Bakouny et al. 2017 [37] Cobb T1–T12 51 (±7.9)
47.7 (±9.1)
49.4 (±8.6)
48
44
92
21.5
21.5
21.5
18–28
18–28
18–28
Male
Female
Mix
Asians 25.1 (±3.3)
21.8 (±2.4)
23.5 (±3.4)
Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Cobb T2–T12 50.8 (±8.8)
47.4 (±10.1)
49.2 (±9.5)
Cobb T4–T12 43.1 (±8.8)
41 (±10.4)
42.1 (±9.6)
Bassani et al. 2019 [20] Cobb T1–T12 49.4 (±13.6)
54.4 (±13.2)
63.3 (±11.3)
44
83
27
66
74
83
60–69
70–79
x > 79
Mix Europeans 25 (±3)
26 (±3)
25 (±3)
Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Cobb T4–T12 40.8 (±10)
48 (±12.1)
57.7 (±10.8)
Endo et al. 2014 [46] Cobb T4–T12 27.5 (±9.6) 86 35.9 (±11.1) 23–59 Mix Asians   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Endo et al. 2016 [40] Cobb T4–T12 30.5 (±8.3)
24.1 (±10.4)
27.8 (±9.7)
30
22
52
35.2 (±10.2)
35.8 (±13.6)
35.4 (±11.6)
22–50
22–50
22–50
Male
Female
Mix
Asians 21 (±2.7)
21 (±2.7)
21 (±2.7)
Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Gangnet et al. 2006 [54] Cobb T1–T12 44.5 (±11.3) 34 30   Mix Europeans   Retrospective, observational
Cobb T4–T12 35.7 (±7.7)
Gelb et al. 1995 [7] Cobb T5–T12 36 (±11)
32 (±10)
36 (±11)
33 (±14)
27
27
37
9
  40–49
50–59
60–69
x > 70
Mix North Americans   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Granito et al. 2014 [48] Cobb T1–T12 29.99 (±5.12)
36.11 (±3.71)
37.14 (±2.67)
10
10
10
24.6 (±2.27)
43.5 (±2.88)
62.4 (±2.67)
  Female South Americans 20.9 (±1.45)
22.79 (±2.72)
26.2 (±2.32)
Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Hammerberg et al. 2003 [61] Cobb T1–T12 52.5 (±12.2) 50 76.3 70–85 Mix North Americans   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Hasegawa et al 2016 [51] Cobb T1–T12 41.5 (±9.9) 126 39.4 (±11.3)   Mix Asians 21.1 (±2.4) Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Cobb T4–T12 29.6 (±9.2)
Hasegawa et al. 2017 [53] Cobb T1–T12 43.7 (±9)
41 (±10.2)
41.8 (±19.58)
40
96
136
40
39.6
39.7
  Male
Female
Mix
Asians 21.4
21.4
21.4
Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Hinman 2004 [47] Flexicurve 12.19 (±3.71) (cm)
10.02 (±2.43) (cm)
25
26
29.2
72.3
21–51
66–68
Female North Americans   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Hu et al. 2016 [42] Cobb T5–T12 24.6 (±9.4)
23.5 (±8.5)
24.2 (±9)
161
111
272
23.2 (±3.4)
23.2 (±5.4)
23.2 (±4.4)
18–45
18–45
18–45
Male
Female
Mix
Asians   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Hu et al. 2020 [32] Cobb T5–T12 24.7 (±9.5)
23.8 (±8.5)
22.6 (±7.7)
23.9 (±8.5)
25.2 (±7.5)
27.2 (±8.5)
26.8 (±8.5)
27.4 (±8.5)
28.5 (±7.2)
27.5 (±8.5)
28.6 (±8.8)
28.6 (±8.5)
30.8 (±13.2)
29 (±8.5)
40
46
40
41
40
42
41
45
40
44
41
40
40
44
  20–29
20–29
30–39
30–39
40–49
40–49
50–59
50–59
60–69
60–69
70–79
70–79
x > 80
x > 80
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Asians   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Iyer et al. 2016 [6] Cobb T2–T12 46.3 (±6.3)
39.6 (±14.7)
41.2 (±13.3)
37.3 (±10.7)
46 (±11)
43.2 (±11.4)
59.6 (±21)
40.4 (±6.8)
44.5 (±13.2)
48.5 (±15.4)
51.4 (±10.7)
50.9 (±11.2)
52.4 (±11.3)
44.7 (±14.5)
47.7 (±13.6)
46 (±15.7)
54.2 (±16.4)
49.8 (±16.1)
5
16
21
6
13
19
4
15
19
3
13
16
11
16
27
9
9
18
  21–30
21–30
21–30
31–40
31–40
31–40
41–50
41–50
41–50
51–60
51–60
51–60
61–70
61–70
61–70
x > 71
x > 71
x > 71
Male
Female
Mix
Male
Female
Mix
Male
Female
Mix
Male
Female
Mix
Male
Female
Mix
Male
Female
Mix
North Americans 26.5 (±6.6)
26.5 (±6.6)
26.5 (±6.6)
28.2 (±7)
28.2 (±7)
28.2 (±7)
31.4 (±7.8)
31.4 (±7.8)
31.4 (±7.8)
28.2 (±6.2)
28.2 (±6.2)
28.2 (±6.2)
27.4 (±2.7)
27.4 (±2.7)
27.4 (±2.7)
26.8 (±4)
26.8 (±4)
26.8 (±4)
Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Iyer et al. 2016 [6] Cobb T5–T12 34.8 (±7.7)
27 (±11.4)
28.9 (±11)
27.8 (±9.9)
37.3 (±10.7)
31.2 (±9.3)
46 (±22.3)
29.1 (±6.4)
32.7 (±12.8)
39.9 (±11.2)
37.9 (±12.8)
38.3 (±12.2)
39.5 (±8.7)
34.4 (±15.6)
36.4 (±13.3)
33.3 (±13.3)
44 (±16)
38.3 (±15.2)
5
16
21
6
13
19
4
15
19
3
13
16
11
16
27
9
9
18
  21–30
21–30
21–30
31–40
31–40
31–40
41–50
41–50
41–50
51–60
51–60
51–60
61–70
61–70
61–70
x > 71
x > 71
x > 71
Male
Female
Mix
Male
Female
Mix
Male
Female
Mix
Male
Female
Mix
Male
Female
Mix
Male
Female
Mix
North Americans 26.5 (±6.6)
26.5 (±6.6)
26.5 (±6.6)
28.2 (±7)
28.2 (±7)
28.2 (±7)
31.4 (±7.8)
31.4 (±7.8)
31.4 (±7.8)
28.2 (±6.2)
28.2 (±6.2)
28.2 (±6.2)
27.4 (±2.7)
27.4 (±2.7)
27.4 (±2.7)
26.8 (±4)
26.8 (±4)
26.8 (±4)
Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Janssen et al. 2009 [36] Cobb T4–T12 37 (±7.3)
35 (±10)
30
30
27
26
  Male
Female
Europeans 21.9
21.4
Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Kim et al. 2014 [31] Cobb T5–T12 21.1 (±7.8)
30.1 (±8.6)
184
158
21.2
63.8
19–28
53–79
Male Asians 22.4 (±2.1)
23.9 (±2.9)
Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Korovessis et al. 1998 [44] Cobb T4–T12 41.8 (±13) 99 52.7 (±15) 20–79 Mix Europeans   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Lafage et al. 2019 [55] Cobb T1–T12 49.5 (±13.3) 119 50.8 (±17) 22–78 Mix North Americans 28 (±6) Retrospective, observational
Cobb T4–T12 41.5 (±12.7)
Cobb T5–T12 36.1 (±12.5)
Lee et al. 2015 [49] Cobb T4–T12 28.5 (±9) 77 31.5 (±7.6) 21–50 Mix Asians 22.6 (±3.7) Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Le Huec et al. 2016 [38] Cobb T1–T12 41.6 (±9.9) 131 35 18–76 Mix Asians   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Cobb T4–T12 29.9 (±9.4)
Cobb T1–T12 41.1 (±9.8) 147 39.6 18–76 Mix Europeans
Cobb T4–T12 33.7 (±8.9)
Oe et al. 2015 [59] Cobb T5–T12 28.3 (±5.8)
30.3 (±13.1)
32.9 (±11.1)
33.4 (±13.4)
33.8 (±11.3)
36.7 (±14.5)
38.8 (±12.6)
40.4 (±18.7)
14
22
73
101
108
203
68
67
50
50
60
60
70
70
80
80
50
50
60
60
70
70
80
80
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Asians 25.2 (±2.8)
21.3 (±2.8)
23.1 (±3.3)
22.8 (±3.3)
22.7 (±2.6)
22.3 (±2.7)
22.1 (±2.8)
22.3 (±3.5)
Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Park et al. 2013 [58] Cobb T1–T12 38.31 (±12.12)
38.69 (±11.08)
39 (±11.52)
41 (±8.05)
26.33 (±21.53)
33.37 (±17.94)
25
25
50
25
25
50
23.4
23.4
23.4
65.8
65.8
65.8
20–29
20–29
20–29
60–74
60–74
60–74
Male
Female
Mix
Male
Female
Mix
Asians 20.8 (±3.2)
20.8 (±3.2)
20.8 (±3.2)
23.1 (±3.7)
23.1 (±3.7)
23.1 (±3.7)
Retrospective, observational
Pavlovic et al. 2013 [52] Flexicurve 3.2 (±2.2) (cm)
3.4 (±2.2) (cm)
104
138
39.5
52 (±4.6)
  Female North Americans   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Schwab et al. 2006 [50] Cobb T4–T12 38 (±12)
37 (±9)
44 (±12)
25
24
22
29.8 (±5.8)
47.3 (±7.22)
70.8 (±5.2)
21–40
41–60
x > 60
Mix North Americans   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Sudhir et al. 2016 [39] Cobb T3–T12 32.55 (±10.93)
33.91 (±11.26)
31.17 (±10.5)
30.24 (±9.6)
35 (±11.75)
101
51
50
52
49
44.91 (±15.81)
48.59 (±13.23)
47.16 (±17.41)
32.17 (±10.4)
58.43 (±6.6)
18–79
18–73
18–79
18–48
50–79
Mix
Female
Male
Mix
Mix
Asians   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Uehara et al. 2019 [41] Cobb T5–T12 25 (±8)
27 (±9)
29 (±8)
31 (±10)
31 (±10)
30 (±11)
31 (±13)
33 (±19)
50
47
53
61
55
54
45
48
50
50
60
60
70
70
80
80
50
50
60
60
70
70
80
80
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Asians 22.7 (±2.9)
22.2 (±2.8)
24.1 (±2.1)
22.3 (±2.8)
22.5 (±3.4)
22.6 (±3.2)
22.4 (±2.8)
23.1 (±3.3)
Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Urrutia et al. 2014 [60] Cobb T5–T12 36 760 66.6 (±11)   Mix South Americans   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Vialle et al. 2005 [57] Cobb T4–T12 40.6 (±10) 300 35.4 (±12) 20–70 Mix Europeans 23.5 (±3) Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Yang et al. 2017 [34] Cobb T1–T12 36.33 (±10.25)
39.28 (±9.58)
35.78 (±8.9)
36.72 (±11.11)
311
29
128
183
46.2
40.3
40.01
50.52
18–78
22–74
Mix
Mix
Male
Female
Asians   Retrospective, observational.
Yeh et al. 2018 [35] Cobb T5–T12 35 (±10)
32 (±13)
31 (±13)
114
135
143
28 (±7)
52 (±5)
69 (±6)
20–40
41–60
61–80
Mix Asians   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Yokoyama et al. 2017 [33] Cobb C7–T12 38.8 (±10.4) 220 59 20–95 Mix Asians   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Yukawa et al. 2018 [43] Cobb T1–T12 34.9 (±8.1)
33.9 (±9.1)
37.3 (±9.1)
33.4 (±9)
35.9 (±8.5)
35.9 (±10.4)
39.4 (±10.5)
35.9 (±10.7)
39.7 (±10)
36 (±11.7)
35 (±11.8)
34.8 (±10.5)
48
53
51
50
50
57
56
51
50
60
50
50
20
20
30
30
40
40
50
50
60
60
70
70
20
20
30
30
40
40
50
50
60
60
70
70
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Asians   Prospective cross-sectional cohort study, observational
Zhu et al 2014 [45] Cobb T5–T12 27.6 (±8.7)
28.1 (±10.6)
27.8 (±11.4)
104
156
260
33.8 (±11.6)
34.6 (±10.8)
34.3 (±12.6)
  Male
Female
Mix
Asians   Cross-sectional cohort study, observational
  1. SD standard deviation