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Table 1 Eligibility criteria

From: The relationship between thoracic kyphosis and age, and normative values across age groups: a systematic review of healthy adults


Adults (18+ years old) without osteoporosis; vertebral fractures; pain; Scheuermann’s disease; scoliosis; history of spinal surgery or trauma; history of prolonged steroid use; rheumatological conditions; cardiac, lung or autoimmune diseases; cancer; metastasis; inflammatory or neurological disorders; pregnancy; or any genetic conditions affecting their bones, muscles or cartilage

Phenomenon of interest

Individuals’ thoracic sagittal alignment


Any research design


Cobb’s method, a flexicurve or a Debrunner’s kyphometer

Research type

Quantitative, not performing interventions