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Table 2 Measurements of paraspinal muscles at different levels

From: Risk factors for screw loosening in patients with adult degenerative scoliosis: the importance of paraspinal muscle degeneration

Parameters Value
L3 (%)
 MrtCSA 80.3 ± 22.5
 ErtCSA 229.8 ± 58.8
 PrtCSA 95.7 ± 28.8
 MrfCSA 41.0 ± 18.4
 ErfCSA 140.6 ± 51.1
 PrfCSA 87.1 ± 28.1
 Mf/t 49.5 ± 13.3
 Ef/t 60.5 ± 12.8
 Pf/t 90.7 ± 5.8
L4 (%)
 MrtCSA 109.6 ± 29.0
 ErtCSA 202.3 ± 48.3
 PrtCSA 129.9 ± 36.9
 MrfCSA 55.3 ± 24.0
 ErfCSA 111.9 ± 39.8
 PrfCSA 119.6 ± 35.0
 Mf/t 49.6 ± 14.0
 Ef/t 54.8 ± 11.9
 Pf/t 92.1 ± 6.2
L5 (%)
 MrtCSA 135.3 ± 36.3
 ErtCSA 142.4 ± 53.4
 PrtCSA 135.6 ± 38.2
 MrfCSA 62.3 ± 28.1
 ErfCSA 63.0 ± 30.9
 PrfCSA 133.4 ± 76.2
 Mf/t 45.5 ± 14.2
 Ef/t 43.7 ± 11.9
 Pf/t 97.8 ± 42.2
  1. M multifidus muscle, E erector spinae muscle, P psoas major muscle, rtCSA relative total cross-sectional area, rfCSA relative functional cross-sectional area, f/t the ratio of the functional cross-sectional area and total cross-sectional area