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Table 2 Association between socio-demographic factors, physical function, baseline knee conditions, and incident ROA

From: Incidence and related risk factors of radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a population-based longitudinal study in China

Characteristic Incident OA (n = 102) Non-incident OA (n = 496) Crude OR (95% CI) P value Adjusted OR (model 1) (95% CI) P value Adjusted OR (model 2) (95% CI) P value
Baseline socio-demographic, BMI, and history of knee injury
 Agea 61.15 ± 6.37 58.77 ± 6.54 1.053 (1.021-1.087) <0.01 1.067 (1.032-1.102) <0.01 1.079 (1.042-1.117) <0.01
 Gendera         
  Male 31 (30.4%) 186 (37.5%) 1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)  
  Female 71 (69.6%) 310 (62.5%) 1.373 (0.867-2.174) 0.177 1.815 (1.111-2.964) 0.017 1.756 (1.071-2.877) 0.025
 BMIa         
  Normal 35 (34.3%) 224 (45.25%) 1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)    
  Overweight 60 (58.8%) 225 (45.4%) 1.699 (1.076-2.682) 0.023 2.072 (1.278-3.358) 0.003 2.086 (1.286-3.385) <0.01
  Obesity 7 (6.9%) 47 (9.5%) 0.940 (0.394-2.246) 1.118 0.459 (0.459-2.742) 0.806 1.158 (0.474-2.831) 0.747
 History of knee injurya         
  No 97 (95.1%) 471 (95%) 1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)  
  Yes 5 (4.9%) 25 (5%) 0.961 (0.359-2.572) 0.937 0.983 (0.364-2.652) 0.973 1.038 (0.381-2.829) 0.942
 Educationa         
  Primary school 19 (18.6%) 117 (23.6%) 1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)  
  Middle school or above 83 (81.4%) 379 (76.4%) 1.351 (0.787-2.319) 0.275 1.320 (0.764-2.283) 0.32 1.329 (0.764-2.313) 0.314
Baseline physical function of the knee
 Range of motionb 128.27 ± 7.10 129.95 ± 6.46 0.955 (0.930-0.981) <0.01 0.954 (0.928-0.981) <0.01 0.952 (0.923-0.983) <0.01
 Flexion contractureb 1.46 ± 2.86 1.19 ± 2.15 1.071 (0.999-1.147) 0.052 1.072 (0.998-1.151) 0.058 1.068 (0.993-1.150) 0.078
 50-foot walk testb 13.14 ± 2.86 12.58 ± 2.57 1.081 (1.003-1.164) 0.041 1.002 (0.941-1.11) 0.601 1.032 (0.950-1.122) 0.452
 Chair stand testa 8.82 ± 2.13 8.37 ± 2.20 1.087 (0.994-1.188) 0.066 1.056 (0.962-1.159) 0.252 1.056 (0.960-1.161) 0.265
Baseline knee joint condition in knee level
 Baseline K/L gradeb         
  0 90 (44.1%) 831 (83.8%) 1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)  
  1 114 (55.9%) 161 (16.2%) 8.769 (5.905-13.022) <0.01 8.552 (5.575-13.120) <0.01 8.527 (5.489-13.246) <0.01
 Baseline knee painb         
  No 179 (87.7%) 900 (90.7%) 1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)  
  Yes 25 (12.3%) 92 (9.3%) 1.646 (0.970-2.793) 0.065 1.560 (0.903-2.694) 0.111 1.541 (0.848-2.800) 0.156
 Contralateral knee painb         
  No 179 (87.7%) 900 (90.7%) 1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)  
  Yes 25 (12.3%) 92 (9.3%) 0.960 (0.504-1.831) 0.902 0.770 (0.383-1.546) 0.462 0.735 (0.361-1.496) 0.395
  1. Model 1: Adjusting for age and gender
  2. Model 2: Adjusting for age, gender, BMI, education and history of injury
  3. aTested by Generalized Linear Model in patient level
  4. bTested by Generalized Estimating Equation in knee level