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Table 1 Preoperative demographic characteristics in the training set

From: Preoperative risk factors for postoperative blood transfusion after hip fracture surgery: establishment of a nomogram

Characteristics Transfusion (n = 111) Non-transfusion (n = 465) t/z/χ2 P
Age (year) 77 (69-82) 66 (56-77) 7.87 < 0.01*
Sex    7.49 < 0.01*
 Female 83 (22.7%) 283 (77.3%)   
 Male 28 (13.3%) 182 (86.7%)   
BMI (kg/m2) 22 (20.3-24) 23.2 (20.8-25.4) 3.16 < 0.01*
Hb (g/L) 105.96 ± 14.08 126.62 ± 15.18 11.07 < 0.01*
TXA    13.29 < 0.01*
 No 79 (24.6%) 242 (75.4%)   
 Yes 32 (12.5%) 223 (87.5%)   
Type of anesthesia    1.33 0.25
 GA 69 (20.9%) 261 (79.1%)   
 CSEA 42 (17.1%) 204 (82.9%)   
Waiting time (d) 5 (4-7) 5 (4-7) 1.83 0.70
Hypertension    1.69 0.19
 No 70 (17.8%) 323 (82.2%)   
 Yes 41 (22.4%) 142 (77.6%)   
Diabetes    5.08 0.02*
 No 85 (17.6%) 397 (82.4%)   
 Yes 26 (27.7%) 68 (72.3%)   
Smoking    5.08 0.02*
 No 99 (21.0%) 372 (79%)   
 Yes 12 (11.4%) 93 (88.6%)   
Alcohol    2.93 0.09
 No 96 (20.6%) 369 (79.4%)   
 Yes 15 (13.5%) 96 (86.5%)   
Surgical approach    0.09 0.75
 HA 87 (19.6%) 358 (80.4%)   
 IF 24 (18.3%) 107 (81.7%)   
Type of fracture    3.63 0.06
 FNF 87 (21.3%) 322 (78.7%)   
 ITF 24 (14.4%) 143 (85.6%)   
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, Hb hemoglobin, TXA tranexamic acid, GA general anesthesia, CSEA combined spinal and epidural anesthesia, HA hip arthroplasty, IF, internal fixation, FNF femoral neck fracture, ITF inter-trochanteric fracture
  2. *: Statistically significant difference