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Table 4 correlation between protein levels in synovial fluid and clinical and radiographic outcomes 12 months after surgery for ankle fracture (n = 42)

From: Association of acute inflammatory cytokines, fracture malreduction, and functional outcome 12 months after intra-articular ankle fracture—a prospective cohort study of 46 patients with ankle fractures

  Protein levels Kellgren-Lawrence score
p value (coef.)
Narrowing in joint space
p value (coef.)
FFI-DK
p value (coef.)
AOFAS
p value (coef.)
EQ5D-5L
p value (coef.)
Pro-inflammatory IL-1α
IL-1β 0.03 (0.17) 0.02 (0.002)
IL-2
IL-6 0.04 (− 0.0004)
IL-8
IL-12p70
TNF-α
TNF-β  
IFN-y 0.048 (− 0.01)
MMP-1
MMP-3
MMP-9
Anti-inflammatory IL-1RA
IL-4 0.03 (− 0.38)
IL-10
IL-13
Cartilage degradation ACG
CTX2
Metabolic b-FGF
TGF-β1
TGF-β2 0.009 (− 0.5)
TGF-β3
  1. Coef: coefficient value (ranges from − 1 to 1 and indicates that a change of 1 unit in the variable will result in a change of x units in the outcome score). Only p values below 0.05 are reported
  2. “–” indicates no statistical significance. Adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and AO fracture classification.