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Table 4 Subgroup analysis and respective results for sensitivity and specificity. PTC, peri-implant tissue culture; SFC, sonicate fluid culture

From: Sonication in the diagnosis of fracture-related infections (FRI)—a retrospective study on 230 retrieved implants

  Total (%) Sensitivity Specificity
  SFC PTC p SFC PTC p
Initial diagnosis
 Suspected infection (local signs) 93 40.4 89.2 84.3 .22 50.0 30.0 .63
 Non-union 68 29.6 92.3 76.9 .63 78.2 90.9 .12
 Implant dislocation 47 20.4 100.0 90.9 80.6 88.9 .51
 Peri-implant fracture 8 3.5 a 50.0 87.5 .38
 Hardware irritation 6 2.6 50.0 83.3 .63
 Chronic osteitis 5 2.2 60.0 100.0
 Posttraumatic osteoarthritis 3 1.3 100.0 100.0
Bone
 Femur 93 40.4 93.1 89.7 1 76.6 93.8 .013
 Lower leg 71 30.9 90.4 82.7 .13 73.7 78.9 1
 Humerus and shoulder girdle 29 12.6 100.0 87.5 66.7 90.5 .13
 Spine 15 6.5 91.7 83.3 1 33.3 66.7 1
 Forearm 9 3.9 100.0 100.0 87.5 100.0
 Pelvis 8 3.5 100.0 100.0 60.0 60.0 1
 Foot 5 2.2 0.0 0.0 66.7 66.7 1
Fracture fixation device
 Plate and screws 167 72.6 90.0 82.9 .18 73.2 89.7 .004
 Nail 26 11.3 100.0 93.8 60.0 100.0
 Screws 24 10.4 83.3 77.8 1 83.3 66.7 1
 Multiple 9 3.9 100.0 100.0 82.2 71.4 1
 (Cerclage) wires 4 1.7 100.0 100.0 66.7 100.0
Early vs. delayed vs. lateb
 Early 11 4.8 100.0 100.0 77.8 77.8 1
 Delayed 71 30.9 86.4 77.3 .22 59.3 92.6 .004
 Late 148 64.3 93.4 88.5 .38 77.0 88.5 .08
Preoperative antibioticsc
 Yes 35 15.2 85.2 70.4 .22 62.5 50.0 1
 No 195 84.8 92.5 88.8 .38 73.9 91.3 .001
Sinus excludedd 180 78.3 98.2 93.0 .25 73.2 88.6 .003
3+ tissue culturese 88 38.3 86.0 79.1 .45 75.6 82.2 .61
Sinus excluded AND 3+ tissue cultures 66 28.7 100 90.5 75.6 82.2 .61
  1. a–, missing values/not calculable
  2. bEarly: < 2 weeks after device implantation; delayed: 2–10 weeks; late: > 10 weeks
  3. cAny administration of antibiotics within 14 days prior to surgery
  4. dPatients with sinus tract and/or wound breakdown excluded from sub-analysis
  5. ePatients with less than three retrieved corresponding tissue cultures excluded from sub-analysis