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Table 1 Bivariate analysis of post-discharge 1 year reoperations for patient, operative, and robot-related factors

From: Do robot-related complications influence 1 year reoperations and other clinical outcomes after robot-assisted lumbar arthrodesis? A multicenter assessment of 320 patients

  All No reoperation Reoperation  
N % N % N % P value
Total # of patients 320   306 95.6% 14 4.4%  
Female 168 52.5% 159 52.0% 9 64.3% 0.367
Obese (BMI>30 kg/m2) 143 44.7% 134 43.8% 9 64.3% 0.132
CCI, mean (standard deviation, SD) 1.2 (1.2) 1.2 (1.2) 1.4 (1.2) 0.398
Prior/current smoker 32 10.0% 31 10.1% 1 7.1% 0.716
Preoperative diagnosis
 High-grade spondylolisthesis 193 60.3% 184 60.1% 9 64.3% 0.877
 Degenerative disk disease 58 18.1% 56 18.3% 2 14.3%  
 Spinal stenosis 31 9.7% 30 9.8% 1 7.1%  
 Degenerative scoliosis 24 7.5% 22 7.2% 2 14.3%  
 Pseudarthrosis 10 3.1% 10 3.3% 0 0.0%  
 Other 4 1.3% 4 1.3% 0 0.0%  
Robot factors
 Open (vs. percutaneous) 56 17.5% 54 17.6% 2 14.3% 0.746
 Robot time per patient (minutes), mean (SD) 28.7 (21.3) 28.5 (21.5) 32.2 (20.3) 0.599
 Robot screws per patient, mean (SD) 5.1 (3.4) 5.0 (3.4) 5.7 (3.4) 0.462
 Robot time per screw (minutes/screw), mean (SD) 6.6 (3.8) 6.6 (3.9) 6.1 (1.9) 0.668
 Robot system
  Renaissance 164 51.3% 160 52.3% 4 28.6% 0.103
  X 156 48.8% 146 47.7% 10 71.4%  
Other operative factors
 Prior spine surgery 27 8.4% 26 8.5% 1 7.1% 0.856
 Instrumented levels per patient, mean (SD) 2.8 (0.9) 2.8 (0.9) 3.2 (1.4) 0.272
 Pelvic fixation 21 6.6% 19 6.2% 2 14.3% 0.233
 Operative time (minutes), mean (SD) 126 (92) 126 (94) 129 (58) 0.924
Any intraoperative robot-related complication (patients have ≥1 complication) 11 3.4% 10 3.3% 1 7.1% 0.437
 Exchange of malpositioned robot screw 3 0.9% 3 1.0% 0 0.0% 0.710
 Robot abandonment 8 2.5% 8 2.6% 0 0.0% 0.540
  Due to registration error 3 0.9% 3 1.0% 0 0.0% 0.710
  Due to unreachable anatomy 1 0.3% 1 0.3% 0 0.0% 0.830
  Other 4 1.3% 4 1.3% 0 0.0% 0.667
 Intraoperative dural tear 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0%  
 Intraoperative loss of motor/sensory function 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0%  
 Return to operating room during same inpatient stay for screw removal and/or exchange 4 1.3% 3 1.0% 1 7.1% 0.042
Other non-robot-related complications
 Intraoperative dural tear 3 0.9% 3 1.0% 0 0.0% 0.710