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Table 1 Characteristics of recurrence and non-recurrence patients

From: Development and validation of a nomogram predicting the risk of recurrent lumbar disk herniation within 6 months after percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy

Characteristics Recurrence, n=32 (%) Non-recurrence, n=320 (%) Total, n=352 (%)
Age    
 <40 12 (37.50) 101 (31.56) 113 (32.10)
 ≥40, <60 16 (50.00) 172 (53.75) 188 (53.41)
 ≥60 4 (12.50) 47 (14.69) 51 (14.49)
Gender    
 Female 14 (43.75) 108 (33.75) 122 (34.66)
 Male 18 (56.25) 212 (66.25) 230 (65.34)
Height (m)    
 <1.6 4 (12.50) 49 (15.31) 53 (15.06)
 ≥1.6, <1.7 15 (46.88) 120 (37.50) 135 (38.35)
 ≥1.7, <1.8 9 (28.13) 135 (42.19) 144 (40.91)
 ≥1.8 4 (12.50) 16 (5.00) 20 (5.68)
Weight (kg)    
 <50 0 (0.00) 11 (3.44) 11 (3.13)
 ≥50, <60 10 (31.25) 58 (18.13) 68 (19.32)
 ≥60, <70 12 (37.50) 131 (40.94) 143 (40.63)
 ≥70, <80 5 (15.63) 73 (22.81) 78 (22.16)
 ≥80, <90 3 (9.38) 36 (11.25) 39 (11.08)
 ≥90, <100 0 (0.00) 5 (1.56) 5 (1.42)
 ≥100 2 (6.25) 6 (1.88) 8 (2.27)
BMI    
 <18.5 1 (3.13) 7 (2.19) 8 (2.27)
 ≥18.5, <24 18 (56.25) 159 (49.69) 177 (50.28)
 ≥24, <27 6 (18.75) 107 (33.44) 113 (32.10)
 ≥27, <30 4 (12.50) 32 (10.00) 36 (10.23)
 ≥30 3 (9.38) 15 (4.69) 18 (5.11)
Occupation    
 Sedentary occupation 4 (12.50) 24 (7.50) 28 (7.95)
 Physical work 19 (59.38) 206 (64.38) 225 (63.92)
 Others 9 (28.13) 90 (28.13) 99 (28.13)
Education    
 Primary and secondary school 23 (71.88) 217 (67.81) 240 (68.18)
 High school 6 (18.75) 40 (12.50) 46 (13.07)
 College 3 (9.38) 63 (19.69) 66 (18.75)
Household registration    
 Rural registration 15 (46.88) 164 (51.25) 179 (50.85)
 Urban registration 17 (53.13) 156 (48.75) 173 (49.15)
Course of disease (months)    
 <12 17 (53.13) 267 (83.44) 284 (80.68)
 ≥12, <60 7 (21.88) 47 (14.69) 54 (15.34)
 ≥60, <120 4 (12.50) 3 (0.94) 7 (1.99)
 ≥120 4 (12.50) 3 (0.94) 7 (1.99)
Smoking    
 No 24 (75.00) 228 (71.25) 252 (71.59)
 Yes 8 (25.00) 92 (28.75) 100 (28.41)
Drinking    
 No 25 (78.13) 239 (74.69) 264 (75.00)
 Yes 7 (21.88) 81 (25.31) 88 (25.00)
Diabetes    
 No 31 (96.88) 299 (93.44) 330 (93.75)
 Yes 1 (3.13) 21 (6.56) 22 (6.25)
Hypertension    
 No 25 (78.13) 259 (80.94) 284 (80.68)
 Yes 7 (21.88) 61 (19.06) 68 (19.32)
Type of surgery    
 PEID 17 (53.13) 197 (61.56) 214 (60.80)
 PETD 15 (46.88) 123 (38.44) 138 (39.20)
Operation time (min)    
 <30 2 (6.25) 43 (13.44) 45 (12.78)
 ≥30, <60 24 (75.00) 240 (75.00) 264 (75.00)
 ≥60 6 (18.75) 37 (11.56) 43 (12.22)
Pfirrmann grade    
 Grade III 11 (34.38) 187 (58.44) 198 (56.25)
 Grade IV 21 (65.63) 133 (41.56) 154 (43.75)
Modic change    
 No 16 (50.00) 249 (77.81) 265 (75.28)
 Type I 2 (6.25) 4 (1.25) 6 (1.70)
 Type II 13 (40.63) 65 (20.31) 78 (22.16)
 Type III 1 (3.13) 2 (0.63) 3 (0.85)
Level of herniated disk    
 L3/L4 2 (6.25) 12 (3.75) 14 (3.98)
 L4/L5 18 (56.25) 165 (51.56) 183 (51.99)
 L5/S1 12 (37.5) 143 (44.69) 155 (44.03)
Herniated size    
 Grade 1 6 (18.75) 36 (11.25) 42 (11.93)
 Grade 2 17 (53.13) 208 (65.00) 225 (63.92)
 Grade 3 9 (28.13) 76 (23.75) 85 (24.15)
Migration grade    
 Central 13 (40.63) 194 (60.63) 207 (58.81)
 Downward, low-grade 15 (46.88) 88 (27.50) 103 (29.26)
 Downward, high-grade 1 (3.13) 22 (6.88) 23 (6.53)
 Upward, low-grade 2 (6.25) 13 (4.06) 15 (4.26)
 Upward, high-grade 1 (3.13) 3 (0.94) 4 (1.14)
Herniation direction    
 Central 1 (3.13) 3 (0.94) 4 (1.14)
 Left 13 (40.63) 177 (55.31) 190 (53.98)
 Right 18 (56.25) 140 (43.75) 158 (44.89)
Herniation location    
 Axillary type 9 (28.13) 136 (42.50) 145 (41.19)
 Shoulder type 22 (68.75) 151 (47.19) 173 (49.15)
 Others 1 (3.13) 33 (10.31) 34 (9.66)
Disk height (mm)    
 <9.535 15 (46.88) 161 (50.31) 176 (50.00)
 ≥9.535 17 (53.13) 159 (49.69) 176 (50.00)
Disk length (mm)    
 <53.965 14 (43.75) 162 (50.63) 176 (50.00)
 ≥53.965 18 (56.25) 158 (49.38) 176 (50.00)
Disk width (mm)    
 <38.315 18 (56.25) 158 (49.38) 176 (50.00)
 ≥38.315 14 (43.75) 162 (50.63) 176 (50.00)
Disk size (mm2)    
 <6455 14 (43.75) 162 (50.63) 176 (50.00)
 ≥6455 18 (56.25) 158 (49.38) 176 (50.00)
  1. Abbreviations: PETD percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal discectomy, PEID percutaneous endoscopic interlaminar discectomy