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Table 4 Changes of foramen area and height

From: The effects of cages implantation on surgical and adjacent segmental intervertebral foramina

  Group A Group B Group C P value
Area (mm2)     
 Upper segment     
  Preoperation 53.403±11.541 49.953±11.332 45.672±9.784 0.060
  Postoperation 55.927±14.731C 49.251±9.814C 41.525±7.744* 0.010
  Follow-up 53.349±13.903C 49.011±9.679C 39.938±7.962* <0.001
 Surgical segment     
  Preoperation 35.643±15.483 34.851±8.590 34.832±10.251 0.945
  Postoperation 39.847±11.617* 42.105±8.527* 46.314±9.700* 0.061
  Follow-up 39.755±10.802* 41.450±8.690* 45.631±9.164* 0.081
 Lower segment     
  Preoperation 43.509±9.122 46.213±9.564 41.384±10.808 0.097
  Postoperation 42.266±9.062 45.651±8.132C 37.288±9.449* <0.001
  Follow-up 42.281±8.654 45.074±7.912C 36.477±8.830* <0.001
Height (mm)     
 Upper segment     
  Preoperation 8.683±1.032 8.674±1.355 8.014±0.832 0.072
  Postoperation 8.748±0.969C 8.617±1.315C 7.379±0.856* <0.001
  Follow-up 8.633±0.882C 8.555±1.271C 7.243±0.812* <0.001
 Surgical segment     
  Preoperation 7.252±1.524 7.382±1.029 7.106±0.925 0.586
  Postoperation 8.110±1.254* 8.452±0.973* 8.725±0.995* 0.124
  Follow-up 8.033±1.165* 8.374±0.954* 8.665±0.998* 0.098
 Lower segment     
  Preoperation 7.669±1.463 8.148±1.194 7.565±1.279 0.083
  Postoperation 7.921±1.178 8.218±1.169C 7.154±1.271* 0.002
  Follow-up 7.824±1.085C 8.067±0.940C 6.960±0.957* <0.001
  1. *P < 0.05 compared with preoperative value
  2. CP < 0.05 compared with group C