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Table 2 The GRADE evidence quality for each outcome

From: Intra-articular magnesium to alleviate postoperative pain after arthroscopic knee surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Outcome Number of Included Studies Total Participants (Mg/ Control) MD (95% CI) Heterogeneity Quality of Evidence (GRADE)
VAS at rest
at 2h 8 212/211 -0.74 (-0.84, -0.64) I2 = 0%, P = 0.51 LOW
at 4h 6 152/151 -0.24 (-0.37, -0.11) I2 = 45%, P = 0.11 MODERATE d
at 12h 6 152/152 -0.53 (-0.64, -0.41) I2 = 47%, P = 0.10 HIGH
at 24h 7 186/186 -0.33 (-0.42, -0.24) I2 = 30%, P = 0.20 HIGH
VAS with movement
at 2h 7 140/139 -0.46 (-0.64, -0.27) I2 = 39%, P = 0.14 HIGH
at 4h 6 150/149 -0.85 (-1.40, -0.30) I2 = 95%, P <0.00001 MODERATE b
at 12h 6 150/149 -0.83 (-1.17, -0.48) I2 = 71%, P = 0.004 MODERATE c
at 24h 7 170/169 -0.58 (-0.79, -0.36) I2 = 45%, P = 0.09 HIGH
Anesthetic Consumption 8 229/220 -4.23 (-4.64, -3.82) I2 = 27%, P = 0.21 HIGH
Anesthetic duration 11 311/302 329.99 (228.73, 431.24) I2 = 99%, P<0.00001 LOW b
  1. (1) GRADE working group grades of evidence:
  2. High quality: Further research is very unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of effect
  3. Moderate quality: Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate
  4. Low quality: Further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate
  5. Very low quality: Any estimate of effect is very uncertain
  6. (2) Explanations:
  7. aStudy limitation: included trials are quasi design
  8. bInconsistency of results: large heterogeneity
  9. cIndirectness of evidence: large differences between the interventions in different trials
  10. dImprecision: small sample size and wide 95%CI
  11. eReporting bias: positive values showing benefits of the studied intervention