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Table 6 Results of meta-analysis and subgroup analyses

From: Intra-articular vs. intravenous administration: a meta-analysis of tranexamic acid in primary total knee arthroplasty

Variables Studies (n) Patients (n) P value Incidence: OR/MDs (95% CI) Heterogeneity: P value (I2) Model
Total blood loss (TBL) 18 1656 < 0.001* 63.99 (27.81 to 100.16) < 0.001* (81%) Random
  13 1197 < 0.001* 33.38 (19.24 to 47.51) 0.34 (11%) Fixed
Drain output 17 1494 0.03* 28.44 (2.61 to 54.27) < 0.001* (93%) Random
 Clamp < 2 h 7 607 0.03* 51.47 (6.02 to 96.92) < 0.001* (92%) Random
 Clamp ≥ 2 h 10 887 0.51 12.40 (− 24.85 to 49.65) < 0.001* (89%) Random
Hidden blood loss (HBL) 6 640 0.83 7.57 (− 60.34 to 75.47) 0.006 (69%) Random
Hemoglobin (Hb) fall 19 1749 0.79 − 0.02 (− 0.20 to 0.16) < 0.001* (87%) Random
 POD1 10 1052 0.07 − 0.34 (− 0.70 to 0.02) < 0.001* (91%) Random
  8 839 0.86 − 0.01 (− 0.11 to 0.13) 0.14 (36%) Fixed
 POD2 8 701 0.37 0.17 (− 0.20 to 0.53) <0.001* (82%) Random
  6 531 0.36 − 0.08 (− 0.25 to 0.09) 0.11 (44%) Fixed
 POD3+ 6 637 0.001* 0.24 (0.09 to 0.39) 0.18 (34%) Fixed
Transfusion rate 25 2950 0.62 0.93 (0.69 to 1.24) 0.54 (0%) Fixed
Complications 20 2594 0.98 1.00 (0.72 to 1.39) 0.47 (0%) Fixed
 DVT 10 1641 0.83 0.92 (0.44 to 1.92) 0.84 (0%) Fixed
 PE 3 342 0.98 1.02 (0.25 to 4.20) 0.81 (0%) Fixed
 Wound complications 14 1465 0.83 0.95 (0.58 to 1.55) 0.39 (6%) Fixed
 Other adverse events 13 1899 0.69 1.10 (0.68 to 1.80) 0.42 (2%) Fixed
Length of stay 7 748 0.33 0.07 (− 0.07 to 0.22) 0.35 (11%) Fixed
Tourniquet time 9 816 0.19 − 1.22 (− 3.06 to 0.62) 0.74 (0%) Fixed
  1. POD postoperative day, DVT deep vein thrombosis
  2. *≤ 0.05