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Table 2 Comparison of the clinical characteristics, preoperative laboratory values, and perioperative data among the 3 groups stratified by the grade of blood loss, as determined by the ATLS hypovolemic shock classification system

From: Factors associated with blood loss in ankylosing spondylitis patients with hip involvement undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty: a cross-sectional retrospective study of 243 patients

  Grade of blood loss P value
I < 750 ml (n = 49) II 750~1500 ml (n = 121) III> 1500 ml (n = 73)
Clinical characteristics
 Age (years) 32 (19 to 67) 32 (19 to 59) 34 (22 to 53) 0.449 c
 Male (n, %) 37 (75.5%) 110 (90.9%) 71 (97.3%) < 0.0001a
 BMI (kg/m2) 21.83 (11.87 to 36.73) 22.76(15.06 to 36.98) 23.39 (15.22 to 37.11) 0.078 c
 Disease duration (years) 10 (0.5 to 40.3) 10.5 (1.0 to 30.0) 14 (0.5 to 34) 0.114 c
 Bilateral THA (n, %) 8 (16.3%) 84 (69.4%) 71 (97.3%) < 0.0001a
 Hip ROM = 0° (n, %) 10 (20.4%) 60 (49.6%) 51 (69.9%) < 0.0001a
 BASRI-hip score of 4 (n, %) 16 (32.7%) 68 (56.2%) 55 (75.3%) < 0.0001a
Preoperative laboratory values
 Elevated level of ESR (n, %) 23(46.9%) 75(62.0%) 34(46.6%) 0.058a
 Elevated level of CRP (n, %) 31 (63.3%) 89 (73.6%) 45 (61.6%) 0.168a
 TT (s) 15.7 ± 0.8 16.2 ± 1.0 16.2 ± 1.0 0.013b
 APTT (s) 40.6 ± 4.8 41.4 ± 4.7 38.7 ± 4.9 0.001b
 PT (s) 13.6 ± 0.8 13.5 ± 0.8 13.4 ± 0.9 0.206b
 PT (%) 93.2 ± 11.3 93.9 ± 11.9 96.1 ± 12.7 0.346b
 INR 1.06 ± 0.08 1.05 ± 0.08 1.03 ± 0.08 0.219b
 Fibrinogen level (g/L) 4.04 (2.42 to 7.41) 4.45 (1.90 to 13.10) 4.06 (1.76 to 6.16) 0.014c
 Platelet level (× 109/L) 270 ± 67 289 ± 77 249 ± 58 0.001b
 Hb level (g/L) 127 ± 15 131 ± 16 140 ± 16 < 0.0001b
 Hct (L/L) 0.386 ± 0.041 0.401 ± 0.042 0.423 ± 0.041 < 0.0001b
Perioperative data
 Iliopsoas and adductor release (n, %) 2 (4.1%) 23 (19.0%) 16 (21.9%) 0.024a
 Administration of TXA (n, %) 40 (81.6%) 77 (63.6%) 42 (57.5%) < 0.0001a
 Chemoprophylaxis of thrombosis (n, %) 30(61.2%) 97(80.2%) 56(76.7%) 0.033a
 Operating time (min) 100 (55 to 250) 180 (60 to 335) 210 (70 to 455) < 0.0001c
 Autologous transfusion (n, %) 3 (6.1%) 30 (24.8%) 33 (45.2%) < 0.0001a
 Allogenic transfusion (n, %) 37 (75.5%) 119 (98.3%) 73 (100%) N/A
 ASA class     0.672a
  1 5 6 4  
  2 40 105 65  
  3 4 10 4  
  1. ATLS Advanced Trauma Life Support, AS ankylosing spondylitis, THA total hip arthroplasty, BMI body mass index, ROM range of motion, BASRI-hip Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Hip Index, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP C-reactive protein, TT thromboplastin time, APTT activated partial thromboplastin time, PT prothrombin time, PT% prothrombin activity, INR international normalized ratio, Hb hemoglobin, Hct hematocrit, TXA tranexamic acid, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists
  2. aChi-square test
  3. bOne-way ANOVA
  4. cWilcoxon rank sum test