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Table 4 Patient characteristics between in-hospital death (+) and (−)

From: Risk factors related to perioperative systemic complications and mortality in elderly patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures—analysis of a large national inpatient database

  Death (−)
(N = 2428)
Death (+)
(N = 18)
P value
Age (years)    0.25
 65 to 74 750
(30.9%)
3
(0.4%)
 
 75 to 84 1389
(57.2%)
11
(0.8%)
 
 Over 85 289
(11.9%)
4
(1.4%)
 
Sex    < 0.001***
 Male 598
(24.6%)
11
(61.1%)
 
 Female 1830
(75.4%)
7
(38.9%)
 
BMI (kg/m2)    0.001**
 Less than 18.5 340
(14.0%)
8
(44.4%)
 
 18.5 to 22.9 1073
(44.2%)
5
(27.8%)
 
 23.0 to 24.9 426
(17.5%)
1
(5.6%)
 
 25.0 to 29.9 409
(16.9%)
1
(5.6%)
 
 Over 30.0 67
(2.8%)
0
(0%)
 
 Unknown 113
(4.6%)
3
(16.6%)
 
Smoking index    0.82
 0 1899
(78.2%)
13
(72.2%)
 
 1 to 999 227
(9.4%)
2
(11.1%)
 
 Over 1000 302
(12.4%)
3
(16.7%)
 
Admission type    0.014*
 Scheduled 1374
(56.6%)
5
(27.8%)
 
 Unscheduled 1054
(43.4%)
13
(72.2%)
 
Emergency transport    0.19
 Yes 395
(16.3%)
5
(27.8%)
 
 No 2033
(83.7%)
13
(72.2%)
 
Hospital type    0.31
 Academic 131
(5.4%)
0
(0%)
 
 Non-academic 2297
(94.6%)
18
(100%)
 
ADL score for admission (points)    0.26
 0 to 10 1008
(41.5%)
10
(55.6%)
 
 11 to 20 1002
(41.3%)
4
(22.2%)
 
 Unknown 418
(17.2%)
4
(22.2%)
 
Surgical procedure    0.62
 Anterior fusion 431
(17.8%)
4
(22.2%)
 
 Posterior fusion 1997
(82.2%)
14
(77.8%)
 
Preoperative comorbidities    
 Diabetes mellitus 350
(14.4%)
4
(22.2%)
0.35
 Cardiovascular disease 134
(5.5%)
2
(11.1%)
0.30
 Cardiac failure 74
(3.1%)
2
(11.1%)
0.049*
 Atrial fibrillation 59
(2.4%)
4
(22.2%)
< 0.001***
 Hypertension 691
(28.5%)
0
(0%)
0.008**
 Cerebrovascular disease 33
(1.4%)
1
(5.6%)
0.13
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 11
(0.5%)
0
(0%)
0.78
 Pneumonia 7
(0.3%)
0
(0%)
0.82
 Renal failure 47
(1.9%)
2
(11.1%)
0.006**
 Hepatic failure 60
(2.5%)
1
(5.6%)
0.40
 Gastric ulcer and hemorrhage 90
(3.7%)
0
(0%)
0.41
 Malignancy 89
(3.7%)
1
(5.6%)
0.67
 Rheumatoid arthritis 101
(4.2%)
1
(5.6%)
0.77
 Dementia 48
(2.0%)
1
(5.6%)
0.28
 Depression 81
(3.3%)
1
(5.6%)
0.60
 Schizophrenia 44
(1.8%)
2
(11.1%)
0.004**
  1. Significant values are given as follows: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001
  2. BMI body mass index, ADL activity of daily living