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Table 3 Risk factors associated with abnormality detected upon additional cardiac investigation

From: Pre-operative clinical predictors for cardiology referral prior to total joint arthroplasty: the ‘asymptomatic’ patient

  ADACI Statistics
Yes (n = 50) No (n = 324) χ2 p value z score Crude OR 95% CI p value
Demographics
 Age (years) 73.3 ± 8.4 69.4 ± 9.0 - 0.004 - 1.05 1.02–1.09 0.005
 Male 35 (70%) 167 (51.5%) 5.94 0.015 2.4 2.19 1.15–4.17 0.020
 Female 15 (30%) 157 (48.5%) 5.94 0.015 -2.4 0.46 0.24–0.87 0.020
 BMI 31.4 ± 5.9 31.2 ± 5.3 - 0.880 - 1.01 0.95–1.06 0.870
Past medical Hx
 Diabetes 9 (18%) 47 (14.5%) 0.42 0.519 0.6 1.30 0.59–2.84 0.520
 Hypertension 37 (74%) 207 (63.9%) 1.95 0.162 1.4 1.61 0.82–3.15 0.170
 Hypercholesterolaemia 30 (60.0%) 186 (57.4%) 0.12 0.730 0.3 1.11 0.61–2.04 0.730
 Smoking 6 (12.0%) 16 (4.9%) 9.52 0.009 2.0 3.39 1.22–9.42 0.020
 Ex-smoker 18 (36.0%) 73 (22.5%) 9.52 0.009 2.1 2.23 1.16–4.29 0.020
 Alcohol 6 (12.0%) 36 (11.1%) 0.03 0.853 0.2 1.09 0.43–2.74 0.850
 Asthma 7 (14.0%) 37 (11.4%) 0.28 0.598 0.5 1.26 0.53–3.01 0.600
 COPD 2 (4.0%) 12 (3.7%) 0.01 0.918 0.1 1.08 0.24–4.99 0.920
 OSA 4 (8.0%) 39 (12.0%) 0.69 0.405 -0.8 0.64 0.22–1.86 0.410
Past CV Hx
 Cardiac Hx total 16 (32%) 116 (35.8%) 0.27 0.601 -0.5 0.84 0.45–1.59 0.600
 CCF 0 (0.0%) 8 (2.5%) 1.26 0.261 -1.1 0.37 0.02–6.49 0.500
 MI 6 (12.0%) 22 (6.8%) 1.70 0.193 1.3 1.87 0.72–4.87 0.200
 CAD 11 (22%) 63 (19.4%) 0.18 0.673 0.4 1.14 0.56–2.34 0.710
 Valvular disease 5 (10.0%) 20 (6.2%) 1.02 0.313 1.0 1.69 0.60–4.73 0.320
 Arrhythmia 6 (12.0%) 49 (15.1%) 0.34 0.562 -0.6 0.79 0.32–1.94 0.610
 PVD 2 (4.0%) 5 (1.5%) 1.42 0.233 1.2 2.66 0.50–14.09 0.250
 CVA 8 (16.0%) 19 (5.9%) 6.64 0.010 2.6 2.45 1.04–5.74 0.040
 VTE 4 (8.0%) 10 (3.1%) 2.90 0.088 1.7 2.73 0.82–9.07 0.100
 CKD 3 (6.0%) 20 (6.2%) 0.47 0.790 0.0 0.97 0.28–3.37 0.970
Family Hx of cardiac disease 16 (32.0%) 56 (17.3%) 6.03 0.014 2.5 2.25 1.16–4.36 0.020
Baseline cardiac Ix
 ECG abnormality 24 (48.0%) 91 (28.1%) 8.07 0.005 2.8 2.36 1.29–4.33 0.005
 Ejection fraction (%) 58.9 ± 11.6 64.6 ± 7.3 - 0.002 - 0.93 0.89–0.96 <0.001
  1. Numerical predictor variables (age, BMI, ejection fraction) are presented as mean ± standard deviation and were assessed using an independent t test. Categorical predictor variables are presented as frequencies and were assessed using chi-squared test of independence. The crude ratio and associated 95% CI are also reported. Significant predictor variables are indicated by p < 0.05 
  2. ADACI abnormality detected upon additional cardiac investigation, OR odds ratio, BMI body mass index, CV cardiovascular, Hx history, CCF chronic heart failure, MI myocardial infarction, CAD coronary artery disease, PVD peripheral vascular disease, CVA cerebrovascular accident, VTE venous thromboembolism, CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, OSA obstructive sleep apnoea, Ix investigation, ECG electrocardiogram