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Table 1 Risk factors associated with additional cardiac investigation

From: Pre-operative clinical predictors for cardiology referral prior to total joint arthroplasty: the ‘asymptomatic’ patient

Variable ACI Statistics
Yes
(n = 138)
No
(n = 236)
χ2 p value z score Crude OR 95% CI p value
Demographics
Age (years) 72.3 ± 8.7 68.5 ± 8.9 < 0.001 1.05 1.03–1.08 < 0.001
Male 81 (58.7%) 121 (51.3%) 1.93 0.164 1.4 1.35 0.88–2.06 0.170
Female 57 (41.3%) 115 (48.7%) 1.93 0.164 -1.4 0.74 0.48–1.13 0.170
BMI 31.4 ± 5.5 31.1 ± 5.3 0.592 1.01 0.97–1.05 0.590
Past medical Hx
 Diabetes 27 (19.6%) 29 (12.3%) 3.62 0.057 1.9 1.74 0.98–3.08 0.060
 Hypertension 105 (76.1%) 139 (58.9%) 11.35 0.001 3.4 2.22 1.39–3.55 <0.001
 Hypercholesterolaemia 88 (63.8%) 128 (54.2%) 3.24 0.072 1.8 1.49 0.96–2.29 0.070
 Smoking 11 (8.0%) 11 (4.7%) 5.97 0.050 1.3 2.03 0.85–4.88 0.110
 Ex-smoker 41 (29.7%) 50 (21.2%) 5.97 0.050 1.9 1.67 1.03–2.7 0.040
 Alcohol 13 (9.4%) 29 (12.3%) 0.72 0.397 - 0.8 0.74 0.37–1.48 0.400
 CKD 12 (8.7%) 11 (4.7%) 2.47 0.292 1.6 1.95 0.83–4.54 0.120
 Asthma 16 (11.6%) 28 (11.9%) 0.006 0.938 -0.1 0.97 0.51–1.87 0.940
 COPD 7 (5.1%) 7 (3.0%) 1.07 0.300 1.0 1.75 0.60–5.09 1.000
 OSA 13 (9.4%) 3 (12.7%) 0.93 0.336 -1.0 0.71 0.36–1.42 0.340
Past CV Hx
 Cardiac Hx total 63 (45.7%) 69 (29.2%) 10.27 0.001 3.2 2.03 1.31–3.15 0.002
 CCF 3 (2.2%) 5 (2.1%) 0.001 0.972 0.0 1.03 0.24–4.36 0.970
 MI 14 (10.1%) 14 (5.9%) 2.23 0.135 1.5 1.79 0.83–3.88 0.140
 CAD 38 (27.5%) 36 (15.3%) 8.28 0.004 2.9 2.11 1.26–3.53 0.005
 Valvular disease 10 (7.2%) 15 (6.4%) 0.11 0.739 0.3 1.15 0.50–2.64 0.740
 Arrhythmia 25 (18.1%) 30 (12.7%) 2.04 0.154 1.4 1.52 0.85–2.71 0.160
 PVD 4 (2.9%) 3 (1.3%) 1.26 0.262 1.1 2.32 0.51 –10.52 0.280
 CVA 19 (13.8%) 8 (3.4%) 14.00 <0.001 3.7 4.55 1.93 –10.70 <0.001
 VTE 8 (5.8%) 6 (2.5%) 2.56 0.110 1.6 2.36 0.80–6.95 0.120
Family Hx of cardiac disease 42 (30.4%) 30 (12.7%) 17.60 <0.001 4.2 3.00 1.77–5.09 <0.0001
Baseline cardiac Ix
 ECG abnormality 53 (38.4%) 62 (26.3%) 6.02 0.014 2.5 1.75 1.12–2.74 0.001
 Ejection fraction (%) 62.0 ± 10.2 64.9 ± 6.7 0.005 0.96 0.93–0.99 0.002
  1. Numerical predictor variables (age, BMI, ejection fraction) are presented as mean ± standard deviation and were assessed using an independent t test. Categorical predictor variables are presented as frequencies and were assessed using chi-squared test of independence. The crude ratio and associated 95% CI are also reported. Significant predictor variables are indicated by p < 0.05
  2. ACI additional cardiac investigation, OR odds ratio, BMI body mass index, CV cardiovascular, Hx history, CCF chronic heart failure, MI myocardial infarction, CAD coronary artery disease, PVD peripheral vascular disease, CVA cerebrovascular accident, VTE venous thromboembolism, CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, OSA obstructive sleep apnoea, ECG electrocardiogram, Ix investigation