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Table 3 Demographic, clinical and radiographic characteristics of AVN after PFNF

From: The clinical and radiographic characteristics of avascular necrosis after pediatric femoral neck fracture: a systematic review and retrospective study of 115 patients

  Total Non-collapsed stage Collapsed stage p value
Demographic parameters
 Age (mean ± SD, years) 13.6 ± 2.0 13.6 ± 2.1 13.5 ± 1.2 0.89*
 Sex (n, %)     0.72**
  Male 78 (67.8) 28 (70.0) 50 (66.7)  
  Female 37 (32.2) 12 (30.0) 25 (33.3)  
 Side (n, %)     < 0.01**
  Left 51 (44.3) 11 (27.5) 40 (53.3)  
  Right 64 (55.7) 29 (72.5) 35 (46.7)  
Clinical characteristics
 Interval between fracture and AVN diagnosis (mean ± SD, months) 13.7 ± 9.5 15.1 ± 9.8 11.2 ± 8.5 0.04*
 Symptomatic (n, %)
  Yes 68 (59.1) 10 (25.0) 58 (77.3) < 0.01**
  No 47 (40.9) 30 (75.0) 17 (22.7)  
 Hip pain (n, %)     < 0.01**
  Yes 63 (54.8) 10 (25.0) 53 (70.7)  
  No 52 (45.2) 30 (75.0) 22 (29.3)  
 Limp (n, %)     < 0.01**
  Yes 58 (50.4) 6 (15.0) 52 (69.3)  
  No 57 (49.6) 34 (85.0) 23 (30.7)  
 Restricted hip function     < 0.01***
  Yes 34 (29.6) 1 (2.5) 33 (56.0)  
  No 81 (70.4) 39 (97.5) 42 (44.0)  
Radiographic characteristics
 Ratliff classification of AVN (n, %)     < 0.01****
  Type I 50 (43.5) 7 (17.5) 43 (43.5)  
  Type II 61 (53.0) 29 (72.5) 32 (53.0)  
  Type III 4 (3.5) 4 (10.0) 0 (0)  
 JIC classification of AVN (n, %)     < 0.01****
  A/B 13 (11.3) 12 (30.0) 1 (1.3)  
  C1 40 (34.8) 17 (42.5) 23 (30.7)  
  C2 62 (53.9) 11 (27.5) 51 (68.0)  
 ARCO stage (n, %)
  II 40 (34.8)    
  IIIA 34 (29.6)    
  IIIB 16 (13.9)    
  IIIC 25 (21.7)    
  1. ARCO Association Research Circulation Osseous, AVN avascular necrosis, JIC Japanese Investigation Committee
  2. *Independent sample t test
  3. **Chi-square test
  4. ***Fisher’s exact test
  5. ****Mann-Whitney U test