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Table 1 The outcomes of AVN after PFNF in the published literature as described by the Ratliff classification system and assessment

From: The clinical and radiographic characteristics of avascular necrosis after pediatric femoral neck fracture: a systematic review and retrospective study of 115 patients

Authors Year Patients Mean age, years (range) AVN Ratliff classification* Ratliff assessment**
I II III Satisfied Unsatisfied
Stone et al. [5] 2015 22 11.0 (4.5–17.4) 8 5 2 1 3 5
Panigrahi et al. [6] 2015 28 10.5 (4–15) 4 0 2 2 NA NA
Bukva et al. [7] 2015 28 10.7 (4–14) 11 6 3 2 NA NA
Hadju et al. [8] 2011 8 11.6 (3–15) 1 0 1 0 NA NA
Bali et al. [9] 2011 36 10.0 (3–16) 7 6 1 0 0 7
Nayeemuddin et al. [10] 2009 14 10.0 (6–14) 1 1 0 0 0 1
Inan et al. [11] 2009 39 11.1 (4–16) 11 8 1 2 1 10
Varshney et al. [12] 2009 21 11.8 (5–15) 3 1 2 0 NA NA
Dhammi et al. [13] 2005 26 10.8 (3–17) 4 NA NA NA 0 4
Togrul et al. [14] 2005 61 10.2 (2–14) 9 8 1 0 NA NA
Flynn et al. [15] 2002 18 8.0 (2–13) 1 0 1 0 NA NA
Bagatur et al. [16] 2002 17 11.0 (7–14) 9 4 2 3 0 9
Mirdad et al. [17] 2002 14 9.1 (4–16) 7 4 3 0 NA NA
Morsy et al. [18] 2001 53 10.2 (3–16) 21 NA NA NA 0 21
Ng et al. [19] 1996 32 9.5 (NA) 9 7 1 1 NA NA
Forlin et al. [20] 1992 16 11.7 (4.6–16) 14 5 5 4 2 12
Canale et al. [21] 1977 60 9.7 (0.5–17) 26 21 1 4 1 25
Chong et al. [22] 1975 20 NA (5–19) 10 5 5 0 2 8
Zolczer et al. [23] 1972 27 NA (13–19) 7 2 5 0 5 2
Lam et al. [24] 1971 75 NA ( 17) 11 6 2 3 NA NA
Ratliff [2] 1962 71 NA (< 17) 29 15 7 7 3 26
Total   686   203 104 45 29 17 130
Percentage     29.6% 58.4% 25.3% 16.3% 11.6% 88.4%
  1. AVN avascular necrosis, NA missing value/not clear
  2. *Classification of avascular necrosis as proposed by Ratliff
  3. **Classification of final result according to Ratliff