Skip to main content

Table 2 Meta-analysis of risk factors for postoperative delirium in older spinal surgical patients

From: Systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factor for postoperative delirium following spinal surgery

Risk factor Studies Statistically methods RR or WMD with 95%Cis I2(%) P value
Preoperative
 Age > 65 years 2 IV, fixed 6.13 (5.75, 6.54) 0.0 0.000
 Age > 70 years 3 IV, random 18.23 (3.13, 107.34) 48.4 0.001
 Sex (% female) 8 IV, fixed 1.21 (1.15, 1.28) 0.001 0.000
 Mean age 6 IV, fixed 1.34 (0.34, 2.33) 6.0 0.009
 Number of medication 3 IV, random 0.92 (− 0.05, 1.88) 77.5 0.063
 Surgical history 6 IV, fixed 2.22 (1.47, 3.34) 0.0 0.000
 Diabetes mellitus 7 IV, random 2.80 (1.15, 6.79) 70.6 0.023
 Cerebral vascular diseases 3 IV, fixed 3.18 (1.27, 7.79) 15.7 0.014
 Low hematocrit (%) 3 IV, fixed − 1.66 (− 2.94, − 0.38) 0.0 0.011
 Low hemoglobin (g/L) 4 IV, fixed − 0.41 (− 0.75, − 0.07) 0.0 0.017
 Low albumin (g/dL) 2 IV, fixed − 0.30 (− 0.50, − 0.11) 18.7 0.003
 Low sodium 4 IV, random − 1.81 (− 3.33, − 0.30) 77.8 0.019
 Low potassium 2 IV, random 0.00 (− 0.28, 0.28) 45.4 0.996
 Blood sugar 2 IV, random 0.13 (− 0.52, 0.78) 33.4 0.698
 Hypertension 7 IV, random 2.01 (1.04, 3.88) 58.3 0.038
 Depression 2 IV, fixed 2.02 (1.00, 4.06) 0.0 0.049
Intraoperative
 Operating time 9 IV, random 29.42 (1.12, 57.72) 87.9 0.042
 Total blood loss 8 IV, fixed 116.77 (93.66, 139.88) 14.9 0.000
 Fusion level 2 IV, random 0.35 (− 0.72, 1.42) 52.3 0.524
 Intravenous fluids 4 IV, random 231.24 (− 137.99, 600.47) 68.9 0.220
Postoperative data
 Low sodium (mEq/L) 4 IV, random − 3.05 (− 5.47, − 0.63) 89.7 0.014
 Low hemoglobin (g/L) 6 IV, random − 0.76 (− 1.24, − 0.29) 82.5 0.002
 Low hematocrit (%) 3 IV, fixed − 2.53 (− 3.59, − 1.47) 0.0 0.000
 Low albumin (g/dL) 2 IV, fixed − 0.10 (− 0.27, 0.07) 0.0 0.245
 Fever 2 IV, fixed 4.52 (2.94, 6.95) 0.0 0.000
 Low potassium 4 IV, random − 3.05 (− 5.47, − 0.63) 89.7 0.014
 Blood sugar 1 IV, fixed 1.00 (1.00, 1.96) 0.0 0.041
 VAS 2 IV, random 0.98 (0.11, 1.85) 55.4 0.027