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Table 2 Contributions of various therapies (in US$) to the overall cost of treating knee OA patients with and without knee arthroplasty, as well as with and without HA use

From: Knee OA cost comparison for hyaluronic acid and knee arthroplasty

  With knee arthroplasty Without knee arthroplasty With and without knee arthroplasty  
Categories No HA Any HA No HA Any HA No HA Any HA All patients
Primary knee arthroplasty $2,994,911,900 $1,061,612,700 $0 $0 $2,994,911,900 $1,061,612,700 $4,056,524,600
Revision knee arthroplasty $24,414,900 $7,335,200 $0 $0 $24,414,900 $7,335,200 $31,750,100
Hyaluronic acid $0 $33,368,300 $0 $165,567,400 $0 $198,935,700 $198,935,700
Corticosteroid $677,900 $579,600 $3,990,200 $1,719,500 $4,668,100 $2,299,100 $6,967,200
Physical therapy $44,093,300 $21,198,300 $33,304,200 $12,671,700 $77,397,500 $33,870,000 $111,267,500
Arthroscopy $10,238,400 $5,083,500 $65,144,900 $13,142,200 $75,383,300 $18,225,700 $93,609,000
Brace $3,873,500 $3,477,200 $14,580,800 $10,370,200 $18,454,300 $13,847,400 $32,301,700
Ultrasound/fluoro imaging $2,044,600 $4,822,200 $7,258,900 $25,657,800 $9,303,500 $30,480,000 $39,783,500
Anesthesia for knee surgery $105,795,100 $40,206,200 $10,679,800 $2,202,300 $116,474,900 $42,408,500 $158,883,400
Arthrocentesis $7,495,300 $15,140,500 $41,151,100 $63,020,000 $48,646,400 $78,160,500 $126,806,900
Knee imaging $13,289,600 $7,473,700 $53,768,700 $15,433,100 $67,058,300 $22,906,800 $89,965,100
Office visits $33,027,900 $19,742,800 $138,959,900 $51,145,900 $171,987,800 $70,888,700 $242,876,500
Total pharmacy $22,150,600 $17,666,500 $80,300,500 $44,926,000 $102,451,100 $62,592,500 $165,043,600
 Opioids $15,314,400 $11,537,300 $53,955,800 $29,549,400 $69,270,200 $41,086,700 $110,356,900
 NSAIDs $6,836,100 $6,125,500 $26,344,700 $15,376,800 $33,180,800 $21,502,300 $54,683,100
Others $310,527,000 $122,053,300 $703,941,000 $108,963,900 $1,014,468,000 $231,017,200 $1,245,485,200
Total $3,572,540,000 $1,359,760,000 $1,153,080,000 $514,820,000 $4,725,620,000 $1,874,580,000 $6,600,200,000