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Table 1 Univariate analyses of risk factors associated with DVT following ankle fracture surgeries

From: Incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremity in patients undergoing surgeries for ankle fractures

Variables Number (%) of DVT (n = 38) Number (%) of non-DVT (n = 1413) p
Gender (male) 19 (50.0) 806 (57.0) 0.387
Age (years) 55.6 ± 14.6 43.4 ± 15.0 < 0.001
 18–44 11 (28.9) 764 (54.1) 0.001
 45–64 18 (47.4) 515 (36.4)  
 65 or older 9 (23.7) 134 (9.5)  
Living place    0.789
 Rural 23 (60.5) 777 (55.1)  
 Urban 15 (39.5) 635 (44.9)  
BMI (kg/m2) 24.5 ± 3.6 25.9 ± 4.1 0.181
 18.5–23.9 11 (28.9) 414 (29.3)  
 < 18.5 2 (5.3) 25 (1.8)  
 24.0–27.9 18 (47.4) 608 (43.0)  
 ≥ 28.0 7 (18.4) 366 (25.9)  
Cigarette smoking 9 (23.7) 212 (15.0) 0.142
Alcohol consumption 11 (28.9) 387 (27.4) 0.832
Diabetes mellitus 12 (31.6) 179 (12.7) 0.001
Hypertension 9 (23.7) 183 (13.0) 0.054
Chronic heart disease 3 (7.9) 65 (4.6) 0.343
History of allergies to any medications 8 (21.1) 202 (14.3) 0.243
History of any surgery 5 (13.2) 109 (7.7) 0.218
Injury mechanism (high energy) 10 (26.3) 284 (20.1) 0.347
Fracture location    0.757
 Unimalleolar 17 (44.7) 656 (45.8)  
 Bimalleolar 7 (18.4) 323 (22.5)  
 Trimalleolar 14 (36.8) 454 (31.7)  
Accompanied dislocation or subluxation 9 (23.7) 258 (17.9) 0.361
Preoperative stay 7.7 ± 3.2 5.3 ± 3.6 < 0.001
Total hospital stay 23.0 ± 7.8 16.1 ± 14.7 0.004
Anesthesia (general) 19 (50.0) 271 (19.2) < 0.001
ASA class    0.033
 I 4 (10.5) 250 (17.7)  
 II 25 (65.8) 1011 (71.5)  
 III or above 9 (23.7) 152 (10.8)  
Operation timing    0.293
 Day 38 (100) 1373 (97.2)  
 Night 0 40 (2.8)  
Type of fracture reduction    0.780
 Closed 1 (2.6) 49 (3.5)  
 Open 37 (97.4) 1364 (96.5)  
Fixation type    
 Screw or pins only 0 73 (5.2) 0.150
 Plate and screws 38 (100) 1340  
Bone grafting 2 (5.3) 52 (3.7) 0.611
Intraoperative bleeding 254.2 ± 349.6 167.1 ± 213.9 0.014
Perioperative blood transfusion (yes) 3 (7.9) 44 (3.1) 0.101
Surgical duration 134.9 ± 74.4 130.7 ± 58.2 0.664
TP (< 60 g/L) 12 (31.6) 245 (17.3) 0.023
ALB (< 35 g/L) 10 (26.3) 171 (12.1) 0.009
Intraoperative prophylactic use of antibiotics 38 (100) 1332 (94.3) 0.129
Postoperative use of antibiotics 36 (94.7) 1304 (92.3) 0.575
FBG (> 6.1 mmol/L) 15 (39.5) 398 (28.2) 0.127
TC (> 5.2 mmol/L) 13 (34.2) 237 (16.8) 0.005
TG (> 1.7 mmol/L) 7 (18.4) 270 (19.1) 0.915
LDL-C (> 3.37 mmol/L) 11 (28.9) 250 (17.7) 0.075
HDL-C (< 1.1 mmol/L) 12 (31.6) 511 (36.2) 0.561
VLDL (> 0.78 mmol/L) 6 (15.8) 263 (18.6) 0.659
WBC (> 10 × 109/L) 8 (21.1) 373 (26.4) 0.460
NEUT (> 6.3 × 109/L) 17 (44.7) 603 (42.7) 0.726
LYM (< 1.1 × 109/L) 20 (52.6) 273 (19.3) < 0.001
RBC (< lower limit) 15 (39.5) 271 (19.2) 0.002
HGB (< lower limit) 15 (39.5) 269 (19.0) 0.002
HCT (< lower limit) 22 (57.9) 563 (39.8) 0.025
PLT (> 300 × 109/L) 6 (15.8) 256 (18.1) 0.713
PDW (> 18.1%) 2 (5.3) 18 (1.3) 0.037
RDW (> 16.5%) 4 (10.5) 52 (3.7) 0.031
D-dimer (> 0.3 mg/L) 30 (81.1) 860 (60.9) 0.013
  1. DVT deep venous thrombosis; BMI body mass index; ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists; RBC red blood cell, reference range: female, 3.5–5.0 × 1012/L, males, 4.0–5.5 × 1012/L; HGB hemoglobin, reference range: females, 110–150 g/L, males, 120–160 g/L; FBG fasting blood glucose; HCT hematocrit, 40–50%; WBC white blood cell, NEUT neutrophile; LYM lymphocyte; PLT platelet, 100–300 × 109/L; TP total protein; ALB albumin; RDW red cell distribution width; PDW platelet distribution width; TC total cholesterol; TG triglyceride; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein; HDL-C high-density lipoprotein; VLDL very low-density lipoprotein