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Table 1 Summary of study and patient characteristics

From: RETRACTED ARTICLE: Comparison of bone morphogenetic protein and autologous grafting in the treatment of limb long bone nonunion: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Study type Country Intervention Case Age, years M/F Nonunion time (months) Follow-up (months) Outcome
Cook [15] RCT USA BMP
Autologous bone
14
16

23
7
27.2 > 9 (1), (2)
Chen et al. [19] RCT China BMP + inorganic bone
Autologous bone
20
30
35
35

8.5 13.9 (8–60) (1), (3)
Friedlaender et al. [16] RCT USA BMP + autologous bone
Autologous bone
63
61
38
34
88
34
17 24 (1), (2), (5)
Zimmermann et al. [20] n-RCT Germany BMP + autologous bone
Autologous bone
26
82
51
44
82
26
10
11
> 12 (1), (2) (5)
Tressler et al. [21] n-RCT USA BMP
Autologous bone
19
74
45.11
41.69
57
36
> 6 20 ± 17.7 (1), (2)
von Ruden et al. [17] RCT Germany BMP + autologous bone
Autologous bone
24
25
43
45
38
11
11 14 (6–8)
15 (6–54)
(1), (3)
Yin et al. [22] n-RCT China BMP + autologous bone
Autologous bone
26
21
38
39
35
12
10–24 (1), (3), (4)
Hackl et al. [23] n-RCT Germany BMP + autologous bone
Autologous bone
62
50
75
37
> 12 (1), (4)
 Humerus     13/9 49.0/51.0 13/9 14.8 ± 3.8   
 Femoral     28/13 55.2/42.4 28/13 11.7 ± 1.1   
 Tibia     21/28 51.6
42.3
34/15 10.3 ± 2.6   
Liu et al. [18] RCT China BMP + autologous bone
Autologous bone
22
20
42.25
41.57
26
16
6–24 (1), (3), (4), (5)
  1. RCT randomized controlled trial, n-RCT non-randomized controlled trial, BMP bone morphogenetic protein
  2. (1) Postoperative healing rate, (2) postoperative infection rate, (3) excellent and good rate of limb function, (4) the mean healing time, (5) secondary operation rate, (6) operation time, (7) intraoperative blood loss, (8) hospital stay, and (9) the hospitalization cost