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Table 3 Maximum von Mises stress (MPa) at different zones of the tunnel entrances in each model under the loading condition 103 N anterior tibial load + 7.5 Nm internal tibial moment + 6.9 Nm valgus tibial moment at a joint flexion angle of 20°

From: A novel protection liner to improve graft-tunnel interaction following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a finite element analysis

  Femoral tunnel entrance Tibial tunnel entrance
  A zone D zone Pos zone Pro zone A zone L zone M zone P zone
Intact 5.56 0.56 0.21 1.33 1.13 0.48 0.47 0.25
Traditional ACLR 0.94 4.54 0.64 0.35 0.29 0.38 1.75 0.66
Double liner (Ti-6Al-4V, 110 GPa) aided ACLR 1.29 0.52 0.26 0.70 0.45 0.46 0.33 0.78
Double liner (PEEK, 3500 MPa) aided ACLR 0.83 1.67 0.47 0.41 0.25 0.22 0.71 0.46
Double liner (CoCrMo, 240 GPa) aided ACLR 1.32 0.64 0.26 0.74 0.48 0.50 0.32 0.79
Single liner aided ACLR 1.37 0.73 0.29 0.72 0.27 0.37 1.52 0.54