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Table 1 Stiffness of ligaments

From: Effect of Achilles tendon on kinematic coupling relationship between tarsal bones: a pilot finite element study

Ligaments represented in the modelsConnected bonesStiffness (N/mm)a
Interosseous membrane (4 ligaments)Tibia–fibula40
Anterior tibiofibular (distal)Tibia–fibula7.8
Posterior tibiofibular (distal)Tibia–fibula10.1
Anterior tibiotalarTibia–talus7
Posterior tibiotalarTibia–talus8
TibiocalcanealTibia–calcaneus12.2
TibionavicularTibia–navicular4
Interosseous talocalcanealTalus–calcaneus7
Lateral talocalcanealTalus–calcaneus7
Medial talocalcanealTalus–calcaneus7
Posterior talocalcanealTalus–calcaneus7
Anterior talofibularTalus–fibula14.2
Posterior talofibular(2 ligaments)Talus–fibula8
Calcaneofibular ligamentCalcaneus–fibula12.7
Dorsal talonavicular (2 ligaments)Talus–navicular7
Calcaneonavicular (dorsal and plantar)Calcaneus–navicular7
Calcaneocuboid (dorsal and short plantar)Calcaneus–cuboid7
Cuboideonavicular (dorsal and plantar)Cuboid–navicular7
Cuneonavicular (dorsal and plantar)Cuneiforms–navicular7
Intercuneiform (dorsal and plantar)Lateral-intermediate–medial cuneiform7
Tarsometatarsal (dorsal and plantar)Cuneiforms–metatarsals7
Metatarsal (dorsal and plantar)1st–2nd–3rd–4th–5th metatarsal7
Long plantarCalcaneus–metatarsals7
Achilles tendon-40
  1. aCalculation based on the foot ligaments stiffness value and multiple relationships according to the cervical ligament parameters reported in 14-year-old child and newborn baby [19, 20]