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Table 1 Comparison between injection/non-injection groups by univariate analysis

From: Preoperative hyaluronic acid injection modulates postoperative functional outcome in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair

Functional outcome
Univariate analysis
VariablesInjection groupNon-injection groupp value
Age (years)64.462.10.22
Sex (n)
 Male32 (55%)28 (70%) 
 Female26 (44%)12 (30%)0.13
NSAID (n)37 (63%)24 (60%)0.70
Hard work (n)21 (38%)13 (35%)0.71
Diabetes mellitus (n)2 (3%)5 (12%)0.08a
Contracture (n)15 (25%)7 (17%)0.32
Trauma (n)27 (56%)13 (37%)0.08a
Workmen’s accidents (n)8 (15%)5 (14%)0.88
Worker’s compensation (n)8 (15%)5 (14%)0.88
Follow-up period (months)
VAS (rest)
VAS (motion)
VAS (night)
Preoperative ROM
 Elevation (°)1071120.52
 Abduction (°)991060.44
 Internal rotation (level of intervertebral body)
 External rotation (°)48450.51
Preoperative muscle strength
 Elevation (relative ratio to uninvolved side)70750.28
 Internal rotation72850.58
 External rotation90870.17
 UCLA score14160.04a
Postoperative (PO) VAS
 PO 3 M VAS (rest)
 PO 3 M VAS (motion)
 PO 3 M VAS (night)
 PO 4 M VAS (rest)
 PO 4 M VAS (motion)
 PO 4 M VAS (night)
 PO 6 M VAS (rest)
 PO 6 M VAS (motion)
 PO 6 M VAS (night)
 PO 12 M VAS (rest)
 PO 12 M VAS (motion)
 PO 12 M VAS (night)
Postoperative ROM
 PO 3 M elevation (°)97890.32
 PO 3 M abduction (°)83790.68
 PO 3 M internal rotation (level of intervertebral body)
 PO 3 M external rotation (°)20170.48
 PO 4 M elevation (°)1141190.44
 PO 4 M abduction (°)1041120.38
 PO 4 M internal rotation (level of intervertebral body)
 PO 4 M external rotation (°)28280.93
 PO 6 M elevation (°)1341260.24
 PO 6 M abduction (°)1331270.39
 PO 6 M internal rotation (level of intervertebral body)
 PO 6 M external rotation (°)36340.57
 PO 12 M elevation (°)1401410.79
 PO 12 M abduction (°)1421430.88
 PO 12 M internal rotation (level of intervertebral body)
 PO 12 M external rotation (°)38380.87
Postoperative (PO) muscle strength
 PO 3 M elevation (relative ratio to uninvolved side)33310.68
 PO 3 M abduction34310.47
 PO 3 M internal rotation71670.53
 PO 3 M external rotation58570.95
 PO 4 M elevation (relative ratio to uninvolved side)55480.25
 PO 4 M abduction61490.06a
 PO 4 M internal rotation82800.70
 PO 4 M external rotation77740.82
 PO 6 M elevation (relative ratio to uninvolved side)70590.10
 PO 6 M abduction71640.39
 PO 6 M internal rotation90930.58
 PO 6 M external rotation81760.57
 PO 12 M elevation (relative ratio to uninvolved side)82780.60
 PO 12 M abduction78770.85
 PO 12 M internal rotation100900.06a
 PO 12 M external rotation83870.65
Postoperative UCLA score
 PO 3 M UCLA score16130.03a
 PO 4 M UCLA score20180.41
 PO 6 M UCLA score24230.74
 PO 12 M UCLA score28280.93
  1. Data were evaluated by logistic analysis
  2. NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ROM range of motion, VAS visual analog scale, UCLA score University of California at Los Angeles score
  3. ap value < 0.1