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Table 2 Cranio-caudal inclination angle (CCIA), categorized into low-, medium-, and high-precision

From: Augmented reality-based navigation increases precision of pedicle screw insertion

Skill LevelGroupPrecision categoryp value
High, − 2.5 to + 10°Medium, − 5 to − 2.5°/+ 10 to + 20°Low < − 5°/> + 20°
ExpertFH128200.917
AR13918
NoviceFH94270.040
AR20218