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Fig. 1 | Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research

Fig. 1

From: Influence of cement-augmented pedicle screw instrumentation in an osteoporotic lumbosacral spine over the adjacent segments: a 3D finite element study

Fig. 1

Different types of models. a The intact lumbar model. b The model of cage in the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, the model of conventional pedicle screws, and the model of cement-augmented pedicle screw instrument. c The conventional pedicle screw instrumentation model. d The cement-augmented pedicle screw instrumentation model

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