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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis for cancer-specific survival (CSS) in Ewing tumor patients

From: Risk factors for metastasis and poor prognosis of Ewing sarcoma: a population based study

 UnivariateMultivariate
VariablesHR (95% CI)p valueHR (95% CI)p value
Age (years)
 ≤ 10Reference< 0.001***Reference< 0.001***
 11–201.874 (1.381–2.544)< 0.001***1.542 (1.132–2.101)0.006**
 21–302.407 (1.7063.397)< 0.001***1.846 (1.299–2.624)0.001**
 31–493.562 (2.444–5.190)< 0.001***3.574 (2.429–5.269)< 0.001***
 ≥ 504.349 (2.657–7.120)< 0.001***4.100 (2.479–6.782)< 0.001***
Gender
 MaleReference   
 Female0.904 (0.743–1.101)0.317  
Race
 WhiteReference0.016*Reference0.024*
 Black2.046 (1.258–3.327)0.004**2.000 (1.215–3.290)0.006**
 Other1.0223 (0.710–1.475)0.9021.018 (0.703–1.475)0.924
Primary site
 LimbReference< 0.001***Reference0.013*
 Cranial1.104 (0.701–1.740)0.6701.436 (0.886–2.329)0.142
 Spine1.421 (0.986–2.049)0.0601.394 (0.947–2.052)0.093
 Thoracic1.049 (0.783–1.407)0.7470.897 (0.662–1.215)0.482
 Pelvic1.817 (1.458–2.265)< 0.001***1.408(1.105–1.794)0.006**
Tumor size (cm)
 < 5Reference< 0.001***Reference< 0.001***
 5–81.359 (0.992–1.862)0.0561.339 (0.965–1.857)0.081
 > 82.017 (1.510–2.695)< 0.001***1.877 (1.370–2.572)< 0.001***
Tumor extent
 LocalizedReference< 0.001***Reference< 0.001***
 Regional1.543 (1.163–2.047)0.003**1.400 (1.046–1.874)0.024*
 Metastatic4.001 (3.014–5.311)< 0.001***3.409 (2.520–4.611)< 0.001***
Cancer-directed surgery
 NoReference Reference 
 Yes0.563 (0.465–0.683)< 0.001***0.925 (0.740–1.156)0.491
Radiation
 NoReference0.001**Reference 
 Yes1.366 (1.130–1.652) 1.079 (0.882–1.319)0.461
Chemotherapy
 NoReference< 0.001***Reference 
 Yes0.431 (0.283–0.656) 0.452 (0.291–0.700)< 0.001***
  1. p value < 0.05*, < 0.01**, < 0.001***