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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis for overall survival(OS) in Ewing tumor patients

From: Risk factors for metastasis and poor prognosis of Ewing sarcoma: a population based study

 UnivariateMultivariate
VariablesHR (95% CI)p valueHR (95% CI)p value
Age (years)
 ≤ 10Reference< 0.001***Reference< 0.001***
 11–201.873 (1.388–2.528)< 0.001***1.549(1.144–2.099)0.005**
 21–302.351 (1.674–3.301)< 0.001***1.808(1.278–2.556)0.001**
 31–493.494 (2.410–5.064)< 0.001***3.481(2.379–5.094)< 0.001***
 ≥ 504.557 (2.831–7.336)< 0.001***4.307 (2.648–7.006)< 0.001***
Gender
 MaleReference   
 Female0.905 (0.746–1.099)0.313  
Race
 WhiteReference0.008**Reference0.011*
 Black2.120 (1.321–3.403)0.002**2.104 (1.296–3.416)0.003**
 Other1.025 (0.715–1.469)0.8941.107 (0.706–1.465)0.928
Primary site
 LimbReference< 0.001***Reference0.004**
 Cranial1.139 (0.730–1.778)0.5661.480 (0.922–2.377)0.104
 Spine1.478 (1.034–2.111)0.032*1.458 (0.999–2.129)0.051
 Thoracic1.062 (0.796–1.418)0.6810.909 (0.675–1.226)0.532
 Pelvic1.855 (1.493–2.305)< 0.001***1.462 (1.151–1.858)0.002**
Tumor size (cm)
 < 5Reference< 0.001***Reference< 0.001***
 5–81.395 (1.025–1.898)0.034*1.386 (1.005–1.911)0.046*
 > 81.985 (1.493–2.640)< 0.001***1.877 (1.376–2.561)< 0.001***
Tumor extent
 LocalizedReference< 0.001***Reference< 0.001***
 Regional1.512(1.148–1.991)0.003*1.373 (1.033–1.823)0.029*
 Metastatic3.820(2.897–5.038)< 0.001***3.259 (2.425–4.379)< 0.001***
Cancer-directed surgery
 NoReference Reference 
 Yes0.571 (0.473–0.690)< 0.001***0.933 (0.749–1.172)0.536
Radiation
 NoReference Reference 
 Yes1.352 (1.122–1.630)0.002**1.065 (0.874–1.299)0.531
Chemotherapy
 NoReference Reference 
 Yes0.426 (0.282–0.642)< 0.001***0.466 (0.290–0.685)< 0.001***
  1. p value < 0.05*, < 0.01**, < 0.001***