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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Is deliberate hypotension a safe technique for orthopedic surgery?: a systematic review and meta-analysis of parallel randomized controlled trials

Study IDLocationsSample sizesIntervention groupsComparison groupsAge range (years)MAP levels (mmHg, DH group)MAP levels (mmHg, C group)Definitions of intraoperative blood lossTypes of surgeriesAnesthesiaOverall mortalityOccurrence of serious adverse events
An 2015 [40]China60RemifentanilDH + ANH vs. ANH37–6460–7070–80Not statedComplicated orthopedicGAY (24h post-op)Y (24h post-op)
Cheng 2003 [41]China30RemifentanilDH+AHH vs. AHH19–6555–6589 ± 9.1Increased weight of gauzesOrthopedicGAN (24h post-op)N (24h post-op)
Chi 2005 [42]China29RemifentanilDH vs. C22–6155–65; 65 ± 790 ± 10Blood collected in suction bottles and increased weight of gauzesOrthopedic (spine or joint)GAN (> 1 h post-op)N (> 1 h post-op)
Diao 2006 [43]China40NitratesDH vs. C71–7970% of baseline; no less than 60Not statedNot statedTHAGAN (4 days post-op)N ( days post-op)
Dong 2012 [44]China54Drug combinationDH vs. C44–7870% of baseline86 ± 8Not statedTHAGAN (4 days post-op)N (4 days post-op)
Fang 2011 [45]China37RemifentanilDH + ANH vs. ANH38–6570% of baselineANH: 87 ± 4; C: 85 ± 6Not statedOrthopedicGANN
38NitratesDH + ANH vs. ANH
Fukusaki 2008 [46]Japan30SevofluraneDH + AHH+ A vs. AHH+ A51–705595Weighing swabs and measuring blood collected from wound drainage.THAGAN (7 days post-op)Y (7 days post-op)
Han 2006 [47]Korea56EsmololDH + ANH vs. ANH< 6555–65 (57.3 ± 4.4)85.1 ± 5.7Not statedPosterior lumbar fusionGAN (7 days post-op)Y (1 week post-op)
Hu 2005 [48]China20NitratesDH + AHH vs. AHH38–6555–6570–100Increased weight of gauzes.THASA + EANN
Hwang 2013 [49]Korea40MilrinoneDH vs. C60–70≤ 60Not statedBlood in suction bottle and weighing the wet gauzesPosterior lumbar fusionGANN
Jin 2008 [50]China60NitratesDH + AHH + A vs. AHH + A48–6665 ± 586.7 ± 10.3Not statedTHAGAN (unclear)Y (unclear)
Kazemi 2006 [51]Iran60NitratesDH vs. C20–6085% of baseline94% of baseline (85–95)Blood in suction container and degree of wetness of used sponges were estimatedOpen fixation of femur fractureGAY (unclear, during hospital stay)Y (unclear, during hospital stay)
Li 2012 [52]China50Drug combinationDH vs. C51–8670% of baselineNot statedNot statedTHAEA+SANN
Liang 2004 [53]China24NitratesDH + AHH vs. AHH41–6370% of baselineDH + AHH: 61 ± 6; DH: 63 ± 4AHH: 89 ± 8; C: 95 ± 12Blood collected in suction bottles and estimated blood in gauzesOrthopedicGAN (24 h post-op)N (24 h post-op)
24NitratesDH vs. C
Liu 2009 [55]China60NitratesDH vs. C65–82Decreased by 30% of baseline, and not less than 5586 ± 16Not statedTHAGAN (4 days post-op)N (4 days post-op)
Liu 2011 [56]China40Drug combinationDH vs. C65–8270% baseline and no less than 6088 ± 5Not statedTHAGAN (4 days post-op)N (4 days post-op)
Liu 2014 [54]China60SevofluraneDH + A vs. A65–8365–7586.2 ± 8.6Not statedUnilateral THAGAN (48 h post-op)N (48 h post-op)
Luo 2011 [57]China60Drug combinationDH vs. C30–6255.7 ± 6.985.3 ± 10.4Blood collected in suction bottles, blood loss of gauzes and salt water towel.Spine surgeryGANN
Niemi 2000 [58]Finland30Epidural anesthesiaDH vs. CNot stated50–60Not statedContents of suction bottles and increase in weight of surgical swabsUnilateral THAEA in DH group and SA in C groupN (next morning of surgery)N (next morning of surgery)
Wang 2012 [59]China23RemifentanilDH vs. C50–6570% of baseline (no less than 55):79 ± 12Not statedTHAGANN
22NitratesDH vs. C
Wu 2000 [60]China20NicadipineDH vs. CNot stated60–6595 ± 4.6Blood collected in suction bottles and the increased weight of gauzes.Intervertebral disc pick out and vertebra planted boneGAN (unclear)Y (unclear)
Xiao 2005 [61]China37NitratesDH vs. CNot stated60–65Not statedNot statedInternal fixation of vertebral or pelvic fracture; spinal tumor resectionGANN
38drug combinationDH vs. C
Xiong 2015 [62]China40NitratesDH + AHH vs. AHH50–7365 ± 5Not statedNot statedTHAGANN
Yang 2002 [63]China50NitratesDH vs. CNot stated60–70% of baselineNot statedBlood collected in suction bottles and the increased weight of gauzes.Cervical posterior decompressionGANN
Yuan 2015 [64]China40NitratesDH + AHH vs. AHH48–6265 ± 5Not statedBlood collected in suction bottles and increased weight of gauzes.Internal fixation of thoracolumbar spineGANN
40NitratesDH vs. C
Zhai 2011 [65]China30Drug combinationDH vs. C18–5955–65Not statedNot statedPosterior lumbar decompression and bone graftingGAN (5 days post-op)N (5 days post-op)
3045–50
Zhang 2009 [66]China20RemifentanilDH + AHH vs. AHH22–5468 ± 5AHH: 83 ± 5; C: 86 ± 7Not statedFixation of vertebral pedicleGANN
Zhu 2006 [68]China40NicadipineDH vs. CNot stated60–65Not statedNot statedTHA; internal fixation of femoral fractureGA + EAN (2 days post-op)N (2 days post-op)
Zhu 2007 [67]China24Drug combinationDH + AHH vs. AHH35–6575% of baselineAHH: 70–90; C: 70–100Blood collected in suction bottles and increased weight of gauzesSpinal surgeryGAN (1 day post-op)N (1 day post-op)
Zhu 2009 [69]China60Drug combinationDH vs. C25–5860–65Not statedNot statedTHA; internal fixation of femoral fractureGAN (2 days post-op)N (2 days post-op)
Zhu 2013 [70]China45NicadipineDH vs. C30–6060–65Not statedNot statedTHA, internal fixation of femoral fractureGAN (2 day post-op)N (2 day post-op)
45Drug combination
  1. DH deliberate hypotension, C control, ANH: acute normovolemic hemodilution, AHH acute hypervolemic hemodilution, A allogeneic blood transfusion with cell salvage, MAP mean artery pressure, GA general anesthesia, EA epidural anesthesia, SP spinal anesthesia, THA total hip arthroplasty, post-op postoperatively, Y reported, N (time point) no drop-out during specified postoperative observational period, N not reported