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Table 1 Characteristics of the 38 studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Effect of intramedullary nail and locking plate in the treatment of proximal humerus fracture: an update systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Age Test type Case NEER classification
(E) (years) (C) (years) (E/C) (IN/LP)
Bi et al. [22] 67.2 + 4.9 65.5 + 6.8 Retrospective study 26/34 II, 60
Boudard et al. [23] 64.1 + 15.8 49.6 + 17.5 Retrospective study 30/33 III, 21; IV, 9/III, 21; IV, 12
Chen and Chen [24] 61.86 + 5.03 62.03 + 5.14 Retrospective study 46/64 II/III
Cheng et al. [25] 54.0 + 12.5 55.8 + 13.3 Retrospective study 54/54 III, 32; IV, 22/III, 36; IV, 18
Cui et al. [26] 55.4 + 5.8 57.5 + 5.8 Retrospective study 23/25 II, 48
Ding et al. [27] 74.3 + 3.4 74.2 + 3.3 Retrospective study 25/60 II, 17; III, 8/II, 37; III, 23
Dong et al. [28] 4.02 + 0.78 3.92 + 0.88 Retrospective study 17/32 II, 11; III, 6/II, 21; III, 10; IV, 1
Gadea et al. [29] 64 57 Retrospective study 54/53 IV, 107
Gracitelli et al. [30] 64.5 + 9.3 66.4 + 8.1 RCT 32/33 II, 16; III, 16/II, 16; III, 17
Gradl et al. [31] 63 + 16 63 + 16 Prospective 76/76 II, 52; III, 60; IV, 40
Ke [32] 51.3 + 4.6 50.2 + 4.9 Retrospective study 40/40 II, 80
Konrad et al. [33] 64.8 + 13.0 65.4 + 15.6 Prospective 58/153 III, 211
Li [34] 74 76 Retrospective study 29/25 II, 12; III, 17/II, 11; III, 14
Li et al. [35] 74 76 Retrospective study 29/25 II, 12; III, 17/II, 11; III, 14
Matziolis et al. [36] 55.6 + 16.5 54.8 + 16.9 Retrospective study 11/11 II, 22
Pan et al. [37] 69.2 + 8.83 69.15 + 8.08 Retrospective study 30/40 III, 19; IV 14/III, 23; IV, 17
Pu [38] 55.8 + 4.7 56.6 + 4.3 Retrospective study 27/27 NA
Qi [39] NA NA Retrospective study 31/38 II/III
Shao et al. [40] 55.9 + 12.4 55.7 + 12.3 Retrospective study 34/34 II, 30; III, 21
Shen [41] 67 67 Retrospective study 22/24 II, 46
Shi et al. [42] 65.4 + 4.5 61.7 + 5.9 Retrospective study 33/37 II, 17; III, 21/II, 21; III, 16
Sui et al. [43] 59.61 + 6.71 58.32 + 6.54 Retrospective study 15/15 II, 4; III, 7; IV, 4/II, 5; III, 7; IV, 3
Tian et al. [44] 56.3 + 4.6 56.3 + 4.6 Retrospective study 30/30 NA
Trepat et al. [45] 64.5 68.3 Prospective 15/14 II, 29
Urda et al. [46] 70.92 + 11.4 71 + 13.54 Retrospective study 26/15 II, 41
Wang et al. [47] 63.4 63.4 Retrospective study 48/55 II, 21; III, 19; IV, 8/II, 3; III, 14; IV, 38
Wang [48] 61.8 + 4.7 62.2 + 4.1 Retrospective study 28/40 II, 68
Wang and Sheng [49] 76.9 + 4.5 76.5 + 4.7 Retrospective study 45/45 NA
Wu [50] 47.5 + 2.5 48.8 + 1.5 Retrospective study 43/43 NA
Xu et al. [51] 56.0 + 17.4 64.6 + 16.2 Retrospective study 14/24 II, 8; III, 5; IV, 1/II, 7; III, 11; IV, 6
Xue [52] 65.15 + 8.74 66.14 + 8.81 Retrospective study 40/40 II, 27; III, 13/II, 26; III, 14
Yu [53] 62.7 + 10.5 61.9 + 11.2 Retrospective study 46/46 II, 19; III, 22; IV, 5/II, 18; III, 19; IV, 9
Yu et al. [54] 59.3 59.3 Retrospective study 26/26 II, 20; III, 5; IV, 1/II, 21; III, 4; IV, 1
Zhou et al. [55] 46.46 + 5.78 43.45 + 6.34 Retrospective study 25/26 II, 30; III, 21
Zhou et al. [56] 65.2 + 3.6 64.5 + 4.7 Retrospective study 63/64 III, 127
Zhu et al. [57] 54.8 + 17.1 50.5 + 19.9 RCT 25/26 II, 51
Lekic et al. [58] 60 59 Retrospective study 12/12 II, 24
Tamimi et al. [59] 65.3 65.3 Retrospective study 10/22 II, 8; III, IV, 2/II, 2; III, IV, 20
  1. M male, F female, E experiment group, C control group, NA not mentioned, IN intramedullary nail, LP locking plate