Skip to main content

Advertisement

Fig. 2 | Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research

Fig. 2

From: Correlation between multifidus muscle atrophy, spinopelvic parameters, and severity of deformity in patients with adult degenerative scoliosis: the parallelogram effect of LMA on the diagonal through the apical vertebra

Fig. 2

Radiological parameter measurement methods. a The coronal Cobb angle (CA) is measured from the superior end plate of the cephalad end vertebra and the inferior end plate of the caudal end vertebra on the coronal plane; the coronal vertical axis (CVA) is defined as the distance from a perpendicular line drawn from the superior end plate of S1 vertebral body to the C7 plumb line on the coronal plane. b The sagittal vertical axis (SVA) is defined as the distance from a perpendicular line drawn from the superior end plate of S1 vertebral body to the C7 plumb line on lateral radiographs; the thoracic kyphosis (TK) is measured from the upper end plate of T2 to the lower end plate of T12; the lumbar lordosis (LL) is measured from the upper end plate of T12 to the upper end plate of S1; the sacral slope (SS) is defined as the angle between the cranial sacral end plate and a horizontal line; the pelvic incidence (PI) is defined as the angle subtend by a line connecting the center of the femoral head to the center of the cephalad end plate of S1 and a perpendicular line from the upper end plate of S1; the pelvic tilt (PT) is measured as the angle between the vertical axis and the line through the midpoint of the sacral end plate to femoral heads axis

Back to article page