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Table 1 Characteristics of the 19 studies in meta-analysis for the diagnosis of PJI using α-defensin

From: Synovial fluid α-defensin in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection: the lateral flow test is an effective intraoperative detection method

Study Country Patients number Mean age (years) Study design Excluded antibiotic therapy Site of arthroplasty Reference standard QUADAS
Laboratory-based immunoassay
 Deirmengian et al., 2014 [10] USA 95 67 Prospective N Hip, knee MSIS (2011) 14
 Bingham et al., 2014 [9] USA 57 64.2 Retrospective NA Hip, knee MSIS (2011) 13
 Deirmengian et al., 2014 [10] USA 149 65 Prospective N Hip, knee MSIS (2011) 13
 Deirmengian et al., 2014 [10] USA 46 65 Prospective N Hip, knee MSIS (2011) 13
 Frangiamore et al., 2016 [15] USA 78 63.3 Prospective NA Hip, knee MSIS (2011) 14
 Bonanzinga et al., 2017 [19] Germany 156 NA Prospective N Hip, knee MSIS (2013) 14
 Gehrke et al., 2018 [23] Germany 173 NA Prospective Y Hip, knee MSIS (2013) 14
 Kanwar et al., 2018 [24] USA 70 66 Retrospective NA Hip, knee MSIS (2013) 14
 Sigmund et al., 2018 [42] Germany 71 70 Retrospective Y Hip, knee MSIS (2013) 13
 Stone et al., 2018 [43] USA 183 65.7 Retrospective Y Hip, knee MSIS (2011) 14
 Kelly et al., 2018 [39] USA 32 64 Retrospective N Hip, knee MSIS (2013) 13
Lateral flow test
 Kasparek et al., 2016 [16] Austria 40 NA Retrospective Y Hip, knee MSIS (2013) 13
 Suda et al., 2017 [21] Germany 28 67.7 Prospective N Hip, knee MSIS (2013) 13
 Balato et al., 2018 [17] Italy 51 63 Prospective Y Knee MSIS (2013) 12
 Berger et al., 2017 [18] Belgium 121 63.5 Prospective N Hip, knee MSIS (2011) 14
 Gehrke et al., 2018 [23] Germany 191 NA Prospective Y Hip, knee MSIS (2013) 14
 Plate et al., 2018 [26] Switzerland 109 65 Prospective Y Hip, knee MSIS (2013) 13
 de Saint Vincent et al., 2018 [22] French 39 62 Prospective N Hip, knee MSIS (2013) 12
 Riccio et al., 2018 [41] Italy 71 69 Retrospective N Hip, knee MSIS (2013) 13
 Sigmund et al., 2018 Germany 71 70 Retrospective Y Hip, knee MSIS (2013) 13
 Renz et al., 2018 [40] Germany 221 70 Prospective N Hip, knee MSIS (2013) 14
  1. PJI periprosthetic joint infection, NA not available, MSIS Musculoskeletal Infection Society, QUADAS Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies