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Table 1 Basic information of included studies

From: Gout is not associated with the risk of fracture: a meta-analysis

Author Year Region Data source Study design Inclusion criteria Inclusion interval No. of patients Outcome of interest (fracture site)
Gout Control group
Tzeng, et al. [23] 2016 China Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) Retrospective cohort study Gout patients were diagnosed, and the age was > 20 years old; Non-gout patients were randomly selected from LHID enrollees without any histories of gouts, and the selection frequency was at 1:2 ratios of age and sex. January 01, 2001–December 31, 2009
The data were followed until December 31, 2011
43,647 87,294 Any fractures: hip, vertebral, wrist, humerus, other upper thigh, leg/knee, ankle/foot
Kim, et al. [25] 2017 USA US commercial health plan Retrospective cohort study Gout patients were identified with ≥ 2 diagnosis codes and ≥ 1 dispensing for a gout-related drug. Non-gout patients, identified with ≥ 2 visits coded for any diagnosis and ≥ 1 dispensing for any prescription drugs, were free of gout diagnosis and received no gout-related drugs. 2004–2013 Patients aged ≥ 50 years who had ≥ 2 visits coded with the International Classification of Diseases 73,202 219,606 Hip, non-vertebral
Paik, et al. [17] 2017 USA Nurses’ Health Study Prospective cohort study Participants were asked whether they had received a physician diagnosis of gout and the date of first occurrence on the questionnaires in 1982, 1984, 1986, and 1988. In 2002, participants were asked whether they had ever received a physician diagnosis of gout and the year of diagnosis. 1990–2004 for the wrist fracture analysis, 1990–2012 for the hip fracture analysis, patients age of 30–55 years 2225 101,574 Wrist, hip
Sultan, et al. [1] 2018 UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink Prospective cohort study Gout patients were diagnosed based on a medical code assigned by the physician. 1990–2004 the data were followed until 2015 31,781 122,961 Non-vertebral, vertebral, wrist, hip, humerus
Wang, et al. [24] 2018 China Shanghai metropolitan area Retrospective cohort study Gout patients were diagnosed by expert physicians based on to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD 9-CM) July 2014–July 2016 147 2527 Osteoporotic fracture