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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patients and univariable analysis of risk factors for DVT

From: A nested case-control study on the risk factors of deep vein thrombosis for Chinese after total joint arthroplasty

Perioperative factors

DVT (n = 73)

NonDVT (n = 292)

P value

OR

(95%CI)

Age (years)

 Mean ± SD

66.52 ± 9.89

62.50 ± 12.28

0.021

1.026

(1.004–1.049

  ≤ 60

17 (23.29%)

102 (34.93%)

1.00 (reference)

  > 60 to ≤ 70

26 (35.62%)

116 (39.93%)

0.419

1.290

(0.696–2.389)

  > 70

30 (41.10%)

74 (25.34%)

0.020

2.029

(1.116–3.688)

Sex

 Male

16 (21.92%)

100 (34.25%)

1.00 (reference)

 Female

57 (78.08%)

192 (65.75%)

0.073

1.660

(0.953–2.891)

BMI (kg/m2)

 Mean ± SD

26.20 ± 4.03

25.14 ± 3.85

0.063

1.053

(0.997–1.113)

  < 25

32 (43.84%)

162 (55.48%)

1.00 (reference)

  ≥ 25

41 (56.16%)

130 (44.52%)

0.113

1.454

(0.916–2.309)

ASA class

 I

35 (47.95%)

103 (34.27%)

1.00 (reference)

 II

31 (42.47%)

151 (51.72%)

0.105

0.669

(0.412–1.088)

 III and IV

7 (9.86%)

38 (13.01%)

0.237

0.613

(0.272–1.380)

Hypertension

 No

47 (64.38%)

224 (76.71%)

1.00 (reference)

 Yes

26 (35.62%)

68 (23.29%)

0.052

1.625

(0.995–2.652)

Type 2 diabetes

 No

68 (93.15%)

272 (93.15%)

1.00 (reference)

 Yes

5 (6.85%)

20 (6.85%)

0.052

1.625

(0.995–2.652)

 Preoperative Hb (g/dL)

127.69 ± 12.86

129 ± 16.48

0.393

0.994

(0.979–1.008)

Preoperative analgesic use

 No

63 (86.30%)

218 (74.66%)

1.00 (reference)

 Yes

10 (13.70%)

74 (25.34%)

0.062

0.529

(0.271–1.003)

Surgical site

 THA

18 (24.66%)

144 (49.32%)

1.00 (reference)

 TKA

55 (75.34%)

148 (50.68%)

0.001

2.445

(1.435–4.167)

Surgical type

 Primary unilateral

46 (63.01%)

247 (84.59%)

1.00 (reference)

 Simultaneous bilateral

23 (31.51%)

35 (11.99%)

0.000

2.542

(1.537–4.203)

 Unilateral revision

4 (5.48%)

10 (3.42%)

0.247

1.830

(0.658–5.087)

 Operative time (min)

99.04 ± 35.86

98.11 ± 48.70

0.089

1.000

(0.995–1.005)

 Intraoperative blood loss (mL)

228.70 ± 286.97

246.21 ± 287.47

0.676

1.000

(0.999–1.001)

TXA use

 No

21 (28.77%)

136 (46.58%)

1.00 (reference)

 Yes

52 (71.23%)

156 (53.42%)

0.015

1.873

(1.127–3.110)

Drain use

 No

4 (5.48%)

164 (56.16%)

1.00 (reference)

 Yes

69 (94.52%)

128 (43.84%)

0.002

4.781

(1.737–13.164)

Transfusion use

 No

40 (54.79%)

226 (77.40%)

1.00 (reference)

 Yes

33 (45.21%)

66 (22.60%)

0.001

2.233

(1.405–3.550)

Human serum albumin use

 No

67 (91.78%)

267 (91.44%)

1.00 (reference)

 Yes

6 (8.22%)

25 (8.56%)

0.993

0.964

(0.417–2.233)

Physical thromboprophylaxis use

 No

40 (54.79%)

100 (34.25%)

1.00 (reference)

 Yes

33 (45.21%)

192 (65.75%)

0.004

0.499

(0.311–0.799)

Start time of drug anticoagulation

 Pre-operation

2 (2.74%)

34 (11.64%)

1.00 (reference)

  ≤ 8 h after operation

27 (36.99%)

170 (58.22%)

0.217

2.479

(0.586–10.484)

  > 8 h to ≤ 12 h

18 (24.66%)

49 (16.78%)

0.035

4.844

(1.115–21.041)

  > 12 h

26 (35.62%)

39 (13.36%)

0.007

7.318

(1.731–30.927)

Ambulation time

  ≤ 24 h

8 (10.96%)

96 (32.88%)

1.00 (reference)

  > 24 h to ≤ 48 h

8 (10.96%)

64 (21.92%)

0.425

1.494

(0.557–4.006)

  > 48 h to ≤ 72 h

15 (20.55%)

82 (28.08%)

0.096

2.091

(0.878–4.981)

  ≥ 72 h

42 (57.53%)

50 (17.12%)

0.000

6.225

(2.89513.384)

  1. DVT deep vein thrombosis, BMI body mass index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, TXA tranexamic acid, Hb hemoglobin