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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patients and univariable analysis of risk factors for DVT

From: A nested case-control study on the risk factors of deep vein thrombosis for Chinese after total joint arthroplasty

Perioperative factors DVT (n = 73) NonDVT (n = 292) P value OR (95%CI)
Age (years)
 Mean ± SD 66.52 ± 9.89 62.50 ± 12.28 0.021 1.026 (1.004–1.049
  ≤ 60 17 (23.29%) 102 (34.93%) 1.00 (reference)
  > 60 to ≤ 70 26 (35.62%) 116 (39.93%) 0.419 1.290 (0.696–2.389)
  > 70 30 (41.10%) 74 (25.34%) 0.020 2.029 (1.116–3.688)
Sex
 Male 16 (21.92%) 100 (34.25%) 1.00 (reference)
 Female 57 (78.08%) 192 (65.75%) 0.073 1.660 (0.953–2.891)
BMI (kg/m2)
 Mean ± SD 26.20 ± 4.03 25.14 ± 3.85 0.063 1.053 (0.997–1.113)
  < 25 32 (43.84%) 162 (55.48%) 1.00 (reference)
  ≥ 25 41 (56.16%) 130 (44.52%) 0.113 1.454 (0.916–2.309)
ASA class
 I 35 (47.95%) 103 (34.27%) 1.00 (reference)
 II 31 (42.47%) 151 (51.72%) 0.105 0.669 (0.412–1.088)
 III and IV 7 (9.86%) 38 (13.01%) 0.237 0.613 (0.272–1.380)
Hypertension
 No 47 (64.38%) 224 (76.71%) 1.00 (reference)
 Yes 26 (35.62%) 68 (23.29%) 0.052 1.625 (0.995–2.652)
Type 2 diabetes
 No 68 (93.15%) 272 (93.15%) 1.00 (reference)
 Yes 5 (6.85%) 20 (6.85%) 0.052 1.625 (0.995–2.652)
 Preoperative Hb (g/dL) 127.69 ± 12.86 129 ± 16.48 0.393 0.994 (0.979–1.008)
Preoperative analgesic use
 No 63 (86.30%) 218 (74.66%) 1.00 (reference)
 Yes 10 (13.70%) 74 (25.34%) 0.062 0.529 (0.271–1.003)
Surgical site
 THA 18 (24.66%) 144 (49.32%) 1.00 (reference)
 TKA 55 (75.34%) 148 (50.68%) 0.001 2.445 (1.435–4.167)
Surgical type
 Primary unilateral 46 (63.01%) 247 (84.59%) 1.00 (reference)
 Simultaneous bilateral 23 (31.51%) 35 (11.99%) 0.000 2.542 (1.537–4.203)
 Unilateral revision 4 (5.48%) 10 (3.42%) 0.247 1.830 (0.658–5.087)
 Operative time (min) 99.04 ± 35.86 98.11 ± 48.70 0.089 1.000 (0.995–1.005)
 Intraoperative blood loss (mL) 228.70 ± 286.97 246.21 ± 287.47 0.676 1.000 (0.999–1.001)
TXA use
 No 21 (28.77%) 136 (46.58%) 1.00 (reference)
 Yes 52 (71.23%) 156 (53.42%) 0.015 1.873 (1.127–3.110)
Drain use
 No 4 (5.48%) 164 (56.16%) 1.00 (reference)
 Yes 69 (94.52%) 128 (43.84%) 0.002 4.781 (1.737–13.164)
Transfusion use
 No 40 (54.79%) 226 (77.40%) 1.00 (reference)
 Yes 33 (45.21%) 66 (22.60%) 0.001 2.233 (1.405–3.550)
Human serum albumin use
 No 67 (91.78%) 267 (91.44%) 1.00 (reference)
 Yes 6 (8.22%) 25 (8.56%) 0.993 0.964 (0.417–2.233)
Physical thromboprophylaxis use
 No 40 (54.79%) 100 (34.25%) 1.00 (reference)
 Yes 33 (45.21%) 192 (65.75%) 0.004 0.499 (0.311–0.799)
Start time of drug anticoagulation
 Pre-operation 2 (2.74%) 34 (11.64%) 1.00 (reference)
  ≤ 8 h after operation 27 (36.99%) 170 (58.22%) 0.217 2.479 (0.586–10.484)
  > 8 h to ≤ 12 h 18 (24.66%) 49 (16.78%) 0.035 4.844 (1.115–21.041)
  > 12 h 26 (35.62%) 39 (13.36%) 0.007 7.318 (1.731–30.927)
Ambulation time
  ≤ 24 h 8 (10.96%) 96 (32.88%) 1.00 (reference)
  > 24 h to ≤ 48 h 8 (10.96%) 64 (21.92%) 0.425 1.494 (0.557–4.006)
  > 48 h to ≤ 72 h 15 (20.55%) 82 (28.08%) 0.096 2.091 (0.878–4.981)
  ≥ 72 h 42 (57.53%) 50 (17.12%) 0.000 6.225 (2.89513.384)
  1. DVT deep vein thrombosis, BMI body mass index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, TXA tranexamic acid, Hb hemoglobin