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Table 3 Results of subgroup analyses based on diverse postoperative knee flexion protocols

From: An updated meta-analysis evaluating limb management after total knee arthroplasty—what is the optimal method?

Clinical results No. of trials No. of participants MD/RD 95% CI P value Heterogeneity I2 Model
Flexion Extension Total
Total blood loss
 LH group 4 153 153 306 − 185.44a − 211.59 to − 159.29 < 0.00001 43 Fixed
 LM group 3 228 211 439 − 112.76a − 208.26 to − 17.15 0.02 77* Random
 SH group 3 204 210 414 − 245.45a − 419.93 to − 70.96 0.006 88* Random
Hidden blood loss
 LH group 3 123 123 246 − 95.77a − 138.21 to − 53.32 < 0.00001 85* Random
 LM group 3 228 211 439 − 83.70a − 186.28 to 18.88 0.11 98* Random
 SH group 2 80 80 160 − 196.35a − 259.06 to − 133.64 < 0.00001 87* Random
Blood transfusion requirement
 LH group 6 232 229 461 − 0.08b − 0.14 to − 0.03 0.003 40 Fixed
 LM group 2 70 70 140 7.00b 4.77 to 9.23 0.02 0 Fixed
 SH group 2 84 84 168 0.02b − 0.07 to 0.12 0.62 0 Fixed
ROM (1 week after operation)
 LH group 1 30 30 60 13.00 9.42 to16.58 < 0.00001 NA
 LM group 4 258 241 499 4.75a 3.10 to 6.40 < 0.00001 43 Fixed
 SH group 3 205 208 413 2.63a − 2.80 to 8.06 0.34 93* Random
DVT
 LH group 6 232 229 461 0.00b − 0.02 to 0.02 1 0 Fixed
 LM group 4 258 241 499 0.00b − 0.02 to 0.02 1 0 Fixed
 SH group 4 175 179 354 0.00b − 0.03 to 0.03 0.98 0 Fixed
Wound-related infection
 LH group 6 232 229 461 0.01b − 0.03 to 0.05 0.67 0 Fixed
 LM group 3 204 187 391 0.00b − 0.02 to 0.02 1 0 Fixed
 SH group 4 224 230 454 − 0.00b − 0.03 to 0.02 0.74 0 Fixed
  1. Data in italics indicate a statistically significant P value
  2. Abbreviations: LH long-term (≥ 24 h) high flexion (> 30°), LM long-term (≥ 24 h) mild flexion (≤ 30°), SH short-term (< 24 h) high flexion (> 30°), CI confidence interval, NA not applicable
  3. *Heterogeneity was statistically significant
  4. aMean difference (MD)
  5. bRisk difference (RD)