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Table 2 Preparation protocols of bone marrow stimulation

From: Efficacy of bone marrow stimulation in arthroscopic repair of full thickness rotator cuff tears: a meta-analysis

First author, year Instrument Diameter (mm) Interval (mm) Depth (mm) Location Postoperative rehabilitation protocol
Immobilized Passive ROM exercise Active-assisted ROM exercise Strengthening exercise Full return to Sports
Jo 2011 Bone punch 2.1 4–5 10 From the articular cartilage margin to the lateral ridge of the greater tuberosity. For 4–6 weeks using an abduction brace The day after surgery for small to large size tear; from 6 weeks after surgery for massive tear From 4 to 6 weeks after surgery From 12 weeks after surgery From 6 months after surgery
Jo 2013 Bone punch 2.1 4–5 10 From the articular cartilage margin to the lateral ridge of the greater tuberosity. For 4–6 weeks using an abduction brace The day after surgery for small to large size tear; from 6 weeks after surgery for massive tear From 4 to 6 weeks after surgery From 12 weeks after surgery From 6 months after surgery
Milano 2013 arthroscopic awl 1.5 4 5 The attachment area of the tendons, along the articular margin For 4 weeks using a sling From 4 weeks after surgery according to the principles of shoulder rehabilitation program by Kibler [22]    
Osti 2013 Arthroscopic awl Unknown 3–4 2–4 From the juxta-articular into the subacromial space For 4 weeks using a sling From 2 to 4 weeks after surgery From 6 weeks after surgery From 12 weeks after surgery NA
Cai 2016 Lumbar puncture needle 0.5 2 3 Footprint region For 6 weeks using an abduction brace From 0 to 6 weeks after surgery From 6 to 8 weeks after surgery From 6 to 8 weeks after surgery From 6 months after surgery
Zhang 2016 Lumbar puncture needle 0.5 2 3 Footprint region For 4–6 weeks using an abduction brace From 1 to 6 weeks after surgery From 6 to 8 weeks after surgery From 6 to 8 weeks after surgery From 6 months after surgery
Taniguchi 2015 Metal bar 3.0 3–5 Unknown Along the medially advanced footprint For 6–8 weeks using an abduction pillow From 2 weeks after surgery From 8 to 10 weeks after surgery From 10 to 12 weeks after surgery From 6 months after surgery
Yoon 2016 Bone punch 2.1 4–5 10 From the articular cartilage margin to the lateral ridge of the greater tuberosity. For 8 weeks using an abduction brace From 8 weeks after surgery From 8 weeks after surgery From 12 weeks after surgery From 6 months after surgery