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Table 3 Number of studies examining each risk factor and the proportion of positive, negative, and insignificant associations found

From: Risk factors associated with cardiac complication after total joint arthroplasty of the hip and knee: a systematic review

Risk factors Studies reporting on a risk factor for cardiac complication after THA or TKA
  N p ≤ 0.05 p > 0.05
   + ~
Age 6 4 2
Male 6 2 4
Female 6 1 4
TKA 4 1 2
THA 4 2 2
Unilateral
Bilateral 1 1
History of cardiac disease 5 4 1
CHF 4 2 2
Valvular disease 1 1
PVD 3 1 2
CAD 3 2 1
Hypertension 4 2 1 1
Chronic pulmonary disease 4 1 3
Diabetes 4 2 2
Renal failure 4 1 3
Obesity 8 1 7
Malnutrition 1 1
Anaemia 3 1 2
Alcohol abuse 1 1
CVD 4 2 2
Smoking history 1 1
ASA score > 2 2 1 1
  1. The number of studies examining each risk factor and their association with cardiac complication in THA and TKA, and the number which showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive and negative association. Studies, which studied a given risk factor but did not show any significant association (p > 0.05), are also identified. CHF congestive heart failure, PVD peripheral vascular disease, CAD coronary artery disease, CVD cerebrovascular disease, ASA American Society of Anaesthesiologists. N number of studies examining this risk factor; + studies showing a positive and significant association; − studies showing a negative, significant association; ~ insignificant result