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Table 3 Fourfold data of X-ray criteria indicated X-ray had a sensitivity of 24% and a specificity of 98%

From: Pedicle screw loosening: the value of radiological imagings and the identification of risk factors assessed by extraction torque during screw removal surgery

X-ray Loose Not loose p value
Positive 17 (24%) 3 (2%) < 0.001a
Negative 53 (76%) 153 (98%)  
  1. Positive—radiolucent area (thicker than 1 mm) and/or the double halo around the screw
  2. aChi-square test