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Table 2 Characteristics of the eleven trials selected showing general information

From: Comparison of intramedullary nailing and plate fixation in distal tibial fractures with metaphyseal damage: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study TSC GAT Gender (F/M) internal fixation methods Assessment methods Follow-up Interval
IMN PL
Wani IH [13] 18/44 interlocking intramedullary nailing MIPPO FFI; union time; weight bearing time; mulunion (rotation; coronal plane; sagittal plane); superficial infection; 3w,6w,9w,12w,3 m,6 m, 9 m,12 m,15 m,18 m; 1y
Vallier HA [12] 1,2,3A 19/85 Tibial nail
Intramedullary nail
tibial plate
no locking plate
Union; malunion; nonunion; infection; secondary operations radiographs > 12 m,7w
Im G I [15] C1,2 I 18/46 Intramedullary nail anatomic plate and screws Union; malunion; nonunion; angulation, roentgenographic views; wound complications; range of the ankle dorsiflexion; Olerud-Molander ankle
score
2y
Fang JH [18] 0 -1 I,II 19/40 interlocked intramedullary; Static locking; primary dynamic locking
unreamed tibial nail
distal tibia locking plate Time: (Operative, Follow-up, Radiation, Bone union, recovery to work)
Union; malunion; delayed union; nonunion; Wound complications; pin-tract infection; anterior knee pain; Secondary procedures
>1y,6w
Chen G [19] 61/95 percutaneous closed
reduction interlocking intramedullary nail
Open reduction plate; Percutaneous closed reduction locking compression plate Union time; operation time; length of incision; radiation time; Radiographic assessment; complication; Union status 1 m,2 m,3 m,6 m.12 m,18 m,24 m
Li Y [20] I,II 13/79 locking intramedullary nail; reamed nail and static locking minimally invasive plate
osteosynthesis
Hospital Stay; OperationTime; Time to radiographic Union; Delayed Union, malunion, Nonunion; Infection (Soft tissue infection, Deep infection, Pin tract infection); Incidence of reoperation; Ankle function 2w,6w,12w,26w,52w
Mauffrey C [21] I 8/16 intramedullary nailing; non-locking screws locking-plate
bridge-plating
DRI; OMAS; EuroQol EQ-5D generalised health outcome questionnaire; union time; Mal-or nonunion 6w,3 m,6 m,12 m
Guo JJ [16] I 35/50 closed intramedullary nailing; Static locking percutaneous locked
compression plate;Static locking
Healing, nonunion; complication; questionnaire concerning removal of the
implants for completion by the patients; AOFAS; implant removal questionnaire
6w,3 m,6 m,12 m
Costa M L [22] 104/321 intramedullary nail locking plate later complications; union, nonunion Radiographs; DRI (EQ-5D-3 L, OMAS); Local complications (infection, vascular and neurological injury, venous thromboembolism, malunion); systemic complications; unrelated adverse events 6w,3 m,6 m,12 m
Polat A [14] 9/16 IMN MIPO, no
blocking screws
Foot function index; time to weight bearing; union time; duration of operation; length of incision; intra-operative blood loss; intra-operative fluoroscopy time; rotational and angular malalignment; rate of infection; secondary interventions; complications 3w,3-6 m
Vallier H A [17] 13/73 reamed intramedullary nailing eduction and standard
large fragment medial plating
Infections; malunions; nonunions; secondary procedures; Employment status; knee pain; ankle pain; and use of pain Medications;FFI; MFA; general health status measure; 22 m(12 m-71 m)
  1. IMN intramedullary nail, PL plate, PTP proximal tibial plating, MIPO Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis, DTF distal tibial fracture, EAFDT extra-articular fracture of distal tibia fracture, OTA Orthopaedic Trauma Association, GAT Gustilo and Anderson Type, TSC Tscherne classification, OMAS the Olerud and Molander Ankle Score, AOFAS The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle surgery, DRI Disability Rating Index, EQ-5D-3 L the EuroQol Health-Related Quality-of-Life 3-Level score, FFI Foot Function Index, MFA Musculoskeletal Function Assessment, F/M female/male, “—” indicates not reported by the study.