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Table 4 Complications in the included studies

From: Mid- to long-term results of total disc replacement for lumbar degenerative disc disease: a systematic review

Study Type of prosthesis Complication (rate) Surgical approach- or intraoperative-related Device-related Postoperative
Guyer et al. [17] Charité 20/90 (22.2%) 0 1 Device subsidence
2 Early postoperative implant displacement
13 Neurological deterioration
1 Symptomatic spondylolisthesis at L5
2 Facet degeneration
1 Unknown
Zigler and Delamarter [50] ProDisc 16/161 (9.9%) 1 Technique error with inlay was inserted backward
2 Retrograde ejaculation
1 Clinical significant blood loss
2 Polyethylene migration due to extreme trauma
1 Polyethylene inlay migration
1 Implant migration
6 Unresolved pain
1 Nerve root compression
2 DVT
Van De Kelft and Verguts [43] Maverick 2/45 (4.4%) 2 Vein injury 0 0
Sköld et al. [41] Charité, ProDisc, Maverick 13/80 (16.3%) 2 Hematoma
2 Wound hernia
1 Subsidence 6 Suspected facet joint pain
1 Nerve entrapment
1 Meralgia paresthestica
Siepe et al. [39] ProDisc 26/181 (14.4%) 1 Abdominal hematoma
1 Retroperitoneal hematoma
1 Retroperitoneal lymphocele
4 Retrograde ejaculation
4 Postsympathectomy syndrome
1 Plexus hypogastricus superior lesion with sexual dysfunction
1 Persisting retroperitoneal secretion
1 Primary suboptimal implant placement
1 Intraoperative posterior wall fracture and posterior fragment dislocation
2 Subsidence
2 Inlay dislocation and subluxation of prosthesis
1 Implant dislocation following fall 2 weeks postoperatively
1 Split fracture L4 following TDR at L4–5
3 Adjacent level disc herniation
1 Index segment spinal stenosis
1 Postoperative neuropathy L5
1 CVA with bilateral isthmus stress fracture and subluxation of TDR
1 Bilateral isthmus stress fracture
1 DVT+PE+lysis
Laugesen et al. [20] ProDisc 19/57 (33%) 0 0 14 Back pain and or radiculopathy
1 Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis
3 Facet arthrosis
1 Unknown
David [7] Charité 22/106 (20.8%) 0 2 Early core subluxation
1 Late core failure
3 Subsidence
5 Symptomatic facet arthrosis
1 Continued axial low back pain
1 Sciatica with drop foot
4 Partial device ossification
2 Complete ossification
2 Disc herniation
1 Spinal stenosis
Park et al. [29] ProDisc 0/35 (0%) 0 0 0
Lu et al. [23] Charité 11/32 (34.4%) 2 Illac vein injury
2 Anhidrosis
2 Abdominal hernia
3 Subsidence 1 Pedicle fracture
1 Severe leg pain
Park et al. [31] ProDisc 5/54 (9.3%) 0 0 2 Adjacent spondylolisthesis
1 Index level instability
2 Index level facet arthritis
  1. In the study of Meir et al. [27], Putzier et al. [34] and Tohmeh and Smith [42], complication rate were not mentioned, this three studies were not included in this table