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Table 2 Univariate analysis of risk factors associated with SSI

From: Incidence and predictors of surgical site infection after ORIF in calcaneus fractures, a retrospective cohort study

Variables SSI (n = 66, 9.7%) No SSI (n = 615, 90.3%) P value
Open fracture 16 (24.2) 19 (3.1) 0.00003****
Sanders grade    0.08191
 I 4 (6.1) 18 (2.9)  
 II 36 (54.5) 319 (51.9)  
 III 19 (28.8) 191 (31.1)  
 IV 7 (10.6) 87 (14.1)  
Operation season (summer) 28 (42.4) 233 (37.9) 0.78615
Intraoperative blood loss (≥ 400 ml) 2 (3.0) 15 (2.4) 0.77030
Extended lateral approach 15 (22.7) 181 (29.4) 0.24816
Fixation type (plate and screws) 37 (56.1) 294 (47.8) 0.20429
Length of operative incision (cm)    0.51307
 < 7 23 (34.8) 200 (32.5)  
 7–11 24 (36.4) 210 (34.1)  
 > 11 19 (28.8) 205 (33.3)  
Operative time    0.05660
 < 120 min 29 (43.9) 380 (61.8)  
 120–180 min 36 (54.5) 205 (33.3)  
 > 180 min 1 (1.5) 30 (4.9)  
Intraoperative temperature(< 36.0 °C) 21 (31.8) 103 (16.7) 0.01807*
Gender    0.26118
 Male 63 (95.5) 562 (91.4)  
 Female 3 (4.5) 53 (8.6)  
Preoperative stay    0.36943
 ≤ 14 days 63 (95.5) 599 (97.4)  
 > 14 days 3 (4.5) 16 (2.6)  
Surgeon level (resident and visiting staff) 16 (24.2) 111 (18.0) 0.22901
Injury mechanism (high energy) 47 (71.2) 310 (50.4) 0.00204**
Obesity (BMI ≥ 28.0) 10 (15.2) 71 (11.5) 0.39142
Diabetes mellitus 0 (0) 20 (3.3) 0.99836
Hypertension 7 (10.6) 53 (8.6) 0.58909
Coronary heart disease 3 (45.5) 8 (1.3) 0.06311
History of anemia 0 (0) 3 (0.5) 0.99910
Tobacco consumption 13 (19.7) 149 (24.2) 0.41327
History of alcohol intake 12 (18.2) 117 (19.0) 0.86844
Allergic history 4 (6.1) 25 (4.1) 0.44905
Previous operation 9 (13.6) 49 (8.0) 0.12219
ASA score (≥ 3) 5 (7.6) 14 (2.3) 0.01903*
General anesthesia 11 (16.7) 64 (10.4) 0.67229
Preoperative antibiotics use 17 (25.8) 69 (11.2) 0.00107**
Intraoperative antibiotics use 61 (92.4) 555 (90.2) 0.56822
Drainage use 39 (59.1) 332 (54.0) 0.42941
TP (< 65 g/L) 28 (42.4) 221 (36.0) 0.29930
ALB (< 40 g/L) 19 (28.8) 137 (22.3) 0.23307
GLOB (< 20 g/L) 15 (22.7) 91 (14.8) 0.16344
A/G    0.46406
 References (1.2–2.4) 59 (89.4) 564 (91.7)  
 < 1.2 1 (1.5) 11 (1.8)  
 > 2.4 6 (9.1) 40 (6.5)  
WBC (109/L)    0.46511
 References (4–10) 47 (71.2) 465 (75.6)  
 < 4 1 (1.5) 5 (0.8)  
 > 10 18 (27.3) 145 (23.6)  
NEUT (109/L)    0.39405
 References (1.8–6.3) 39 (59.1) 394 (64.1)  
 > 6.3 27 (40.9) 217 (35.3)  
LYM (109/L)    0.99515
 References (1.1–3.2) 56 (84.9) 533 (86.7)  
 < 1.1 10 (15.2) 71 (11.5)  
 > 3.2 0 (0) 11 (1.8)  
MON (109/L)    0.79901
 References (0.1–0.6) 31 (47.0) 298 (48.5)  
 > 0.6 35 (53.0) 315 (51.2)  
BAS (109/L)    0.08710
 References (0–0.06) 60 (90.9) 577 (93.8)  
 > 0.06 6 (9.1) 18 (2.9)  
  1. TP total protein, A albumin, G globulin, A/G albumin/globulin, WBC white blood cell, NEUT neutrophile, LYM lymphocyte, MON monocyte, BAS basophilic
  2. Significant Variables (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ****P < 0.0001)