Skip to main content

Table 3 Secondary outcome measures, Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Questionnaire (WOMAC), and range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength measurements

From: Effect of low-intensity long-duration ultrasound on the symptomatic relief of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study

Secondary outcome measurements
Variable Baseline Endpoint Endpoint group difference
Active Placebo p Active Placebo Mean 95% CI p
WOMAC Assessment
n 55 35   51 31   
 WOMAC pain 292 ± 89.1 276.5 ± 77.9 0.40 185 ± 103.2 215.7 ± 81.5 − 30.4 0.150
− 72.4 to 11.6
 WOMAC pain mean change from baseline 95%CI − 107.3 ± 97.5 − 60.8 ± 80.95 − 46.5
− 85.6 to − 7.4
0.020
− 147.6 to − 66.8 − 100.3 to − 21.2
p < 0.0001 p = 0.003
 WOMAC stiffness 125 ± 35.8 123.5 ± 42.7 0.85 80.2 ± 41.1 106.4 ± 31.1 − 26.2
− 43.1 to 9.3
0.003
 WOMAC stiffness mean change from baseline 95%CI − 45 ± 39.0 − 17.1 ± 38.5 − 27.9
− 45.1 to − 10.7
0.002
− 61.1 to − 28.9 − 36.0 to 1.9
p < 0.0001 p = 0.080
 WOMAC function 975 ± 272.2 974 ± 218.3 0.99 622.9 ± 336.7 754.8 ± 241.4 − 131.9
− 263.2 to 0.7
0.049
 WOMAC function mean change from baseline 95%CI − 352.3 ± 309.6 − 220.1 ± 233.6 − 132.2
− 250.5 to − 13.9
0.029
− 480.7 to − 224 − 334.3 to − 105.9
p < 0.0001 p = 0.0002
 WOMAC total 1393 ± 377 1375 ± 299.4 0.81 888.4 ± 471 1063.7 ± 351.7 − 175.3
− 362.1 to 11.5
0.066
 WOMAC total mean change from baseline 95%CI − 504.6 ± 431.5 − 311.2 ± 331.33 −193.4
− 359.6 to − 27.2
0.023
− 683.4 to − 325.7 − 473.4 to − 148.9
p < 0.0001 p = 0.0002
ROM and strength assessments
n 9 8   9 8   
 ROM flexion (°) 41.5 ± 35.0 36.8 ± 28.5 0.76 35.1 ± 27.9 34.6 ± 25.1 0.570
− 27.1 to 28.2
0.97
 ROM flexion mean change from baseline 95% CI − 6.38 ± 33.6 − 2.22 ± 38.2 − 4.16
− 6.38 to − 2.22
0.79
− 40.5 to 27.8 − 29.1 to 24.6
p = 0.69 p = 0.86
 ROM extension (°) 39.5 ± 35.9 37.1 ± 29.5 0.88 21.8 ± 28.0 31.6 ± 25.7 −9.81
−37.8 to 18.2
0.46
 ROM extension mean change from baseline 95% CI − 17.75 ± 34.1 − 5.56 ± 29.34 − 12.19
− 46.0 to 21.7
0.45
− 52.5 to 17.0 − 33.2 to 22.1
p = 0.29 p = 0.68
 Strength flexion (N) 8.05 ± 3.64 10.4 ± 6.31 0.37 9.39 ± 2.92 11.4 ± 2.84 − 2.03
− 5.03 to 0.960
0.17
 Strength flexion mean change from baseline 95% CI 1.34 ± 3.50 1.01 ± 5.19 0.33
− 5.26 to 5.92
0.90
− 2.22 to 4.89 − 4.06 to 6.08
p = 0.43 p = 0.67
 Strength rotation (N) 6.06 ± 2.22 9.91 ± 5.52 0.086 9.28 ± 3.10 10.6 ± 3.09 − 1.31
− 4.52 to 1.90
0.40
 Strength rotation mean change from baseline 95% CI 3.21 ± 2.86 0.68 ± 4.74 2.53
− 2.20 to 7.25
0.25
0.294 to 6.06 − 3.89 to 5.25
p = 0.03 p = 0.75
 Strength extension (N) 7.79 ± 4.36 9.4 ± 5.29 0.51 9.70 ± 4.83 11.0 ± 2.81 − 1.30
− 5.59 to 2.99
0.50
 Strength extension mean change from baseline 95% CI 1.91 ± 4.88 1.60 ± 4.49 0.31
− 4.78 to 5.40
0.90
− 3.03 to 6.85 − 2.74 to 5.94
p = 0.42 p = 0.43
  1. p < 0.05 shown in italics