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Table 2 The GRADE evidence quality for each outcome

From: Effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on distraction osteogenesis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Quality assessment No. of patients Effect Quality Importance
No. of studies Design Risk of bias Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Other considerations New comparison Control Relative (95% CI) Absolute   
Bone healing index (better indicated by lower values)
 5 Randomized trials Serious Serious No serious indirectness No serious imprecision None 89 84 N/A MD 8.75 lower (20.68 lower to 3.18 higher) OO
Low
Critical
Risk of complications
 5 Randomized trials Serious No serious inconsistency No serious indirectness No serious imprecision None 23/103 (22.3%) 27/111 (24.3%) RR 0.90 (0.65 to 1.24) 24 fewer per 1000 (from 85 fewer to 58 more) O
Moderate
Critical
Radiography gap fill area (better indicated by higher values)
 2 Randomized trials No serious risk of bias No serious inconsistency No serious indirectness Very serious None 9 8 N/A SMD 0.48 lower (1.49 lower to 0.52 higher) OO
Low
Important
Histology gap fill length (better indicated by higher values)
 2 Randomized trials No serious risk of bias No serious inconsistency No serious indirectness Very serious None 9 8 N/A SMD 0.76 lower (1.78 lower to 0.27 higher) OO
Low
Important
Bone density increase (better indicated by higher values)
 4 Randomized trials Serious No serious inconsistency No serious indirectness Serious None 42 38 N/A SMD 0.43 higher (0.02 lower to 0.88 higher) OO
Low
Important
  1. N/A not applicable, RR risk ratio, SMD standardized mean difference, MD mean difference, CI confidence interval
  2. means high qulity
  3. Ο means moderate qulity
  4. ΟΟ means low qulity
  5. ΟΟΟ means very low qulity