Skip to main content

Table 1 Details of physical therapy and HAL training protocol

From: Training with Hybrid Assistive Limb for walking function after total knee arthroplasty

  HAL group Control group P value
HAL training Single leg version HAL (size M) None  
1 week to 5 weeks after TKA (4 weeks)  
Number of sessions: 11.6 ± 0.8  
Average duration of session: 14.4 ± 5.9 min  
Knee ROM exercises (less than 20 min)  
Gait training (less than 20 min)  
Conventional PT  1 day after TKA to hospital discharge  
 5 or more days a week  
60 to 80 min a day (during the HAL intervention period) 60 to 120 min a day (during the HAL intervention period)  
CPM: from 3 days after TKA  
FWB: from 1 week after TKA  
Gait training (flat ground, outdoor, irregular terrain)  
Stair climbing training  
Joint ROM training  
Muscle strengthening  
Balancing training (sitting and standing positions)  
ADL training (toilet, bathing, bedside tasks, etc.)  
Bicycle ergometer training  
Various physical exercises for returning to work  
Self-exercise education  
Total PT time including HAL training during HAL intervention period 26.5 ± 4.2 (h) 28.2 ± 5.2 (h) 0.434
  1. Values are expressed as numbers or as mean ± SD
  2. Abbreviation: TKA, total knee arthroplasty; ROM, range of motion; PT, physical therapy; CPM, continuous passive movement; FWB, full weight-bearing; ADL, activities of daily living