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Table 2 Effect sizes of symptomatic outcomes

From: Effectiveness and safety of glucosamine and chondroitin for the treatment of osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Outcomes Interventions No. of studies Test of association Test of heterogeneity
SMD 95% CI P value Model I2 (%) P value
Pain G vs. PBO 14 − 0.105 (− 0.254, 0.045) 0.170 Random 72.50 0.000
C vs. PBO 12 − 0.216 (− 0.360, − 0.071) 0.003 Random 70.80 0.000
G + C vs. PBO 4 0.792 (− 0.296, 1.880) 0.153 Random 98.50 0.000
Overall 30 − 0.071 (− 0.228, 0.085) 0.369 Random 90.10 0.000
Function G vs. PBO 11 − 0.126 (− 0.264, 0.012) 0.073 Random 64.10 0.002
C vs. PBO 10 − 0.220 (− 0.358, − 0.081) 0.002 Random 68.30 0.001
G + C vs. PBO 4 0.556 (− 0.368, 1.480) 0.238 Random 98.00 0.000
Overall 25 − 0.090 (− 0.242, 0.061) 0.242 Random 89.00 0.000
Stiffness G vs. PBO 8 − 0.305 (− 0.609, − 0.002) 0.048 Random 89.00 0.000
C vs. PBO 3 0.026 (− 0.073, 0.126) 0.604 Fixed 31.70 0.232
G + C vs. PBO 2 − 0.070 (− 0.214, 0.074) 0.340 Fixed 0.00 0.582
Overall 13 − 0.142 (− 0.301, 0.017) 0.081 Random 82.90 0.000
  1. G glucosamine, C chondroitin, G + C glucosamine + chondroitin, PBO placebo