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Table 2 Meta-analysis results for pain score and Harris hip score

From: Meta-analysis of the potential role of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in osteonecrosis of the femoral head

Variable Group Sample size Test of association Model Test of heterogeneitya, b Egger’s testc
K ESWT Control SMD (95% CI) Z P Q P I2 (%) t P
Pain score Base 2 46 45 −1.0104 [− 2.3279; 0.3071] 1.5032 0.1328 Random 6.61 0.0058 86.9
Post 2 46 45 − 2.1148 [− 3.2332; − 0.9965] 3.7063 0.0002 Random 4.42 0.0035 77.4
Change 2 46 46 − 0.7353 [− 2.1272; 0.6566] 1.0354 0.3005 Random 9.81 0.0017 89.8
Harris hip score Base 4 125 130 0.3717 [− 0.3125; 1.0559] 1.0647 0.287 Random 34.06 < 0.001 85.3 1.9243 0.1267
Post 4 125 130 2.1377 [1.2875; 2.9880] 4.9281 < 0.001 Random 35.77 < 0.001 86.0 3.5824 0.0231
Change 4 125 125 1.2969 [0.7171; 1.8767] 4.3839 < 0.001 Random 20.72 0.001 75.9 0.9755 0.3846
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, K number of studies combined
  2. aRandom-effects model was used when the P for heterogeneity test < 0.05; otherwise, the fixed-effect model was used
  3. bP < 0.05 is considered statistically significant for Q statistics
  4. cEgger’s test to evaluate publication bias, P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant