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Table 1 The general characteristic of the included studies

From: Local infiltration anesthesia versus epidural analgesia for postoperative pain control in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Country Age (year, I/C) Male patients (%, I/C) LIA EPA Study Follow-up
No. of patients Dose and methods No. of patients Dose and methods
Andersen et al. 2010 [10] Denmark 67/69 50/40 21 Combination of wound infiltration and continuous intra-articular injection postoperatively 19 Continuous epidural infusion RCTs 30 days
Binici et al. 2014 [11] Turkey 70.8/67.9 0/5 15 Continuous peri-articular injection postoperatively (3 ml (60 mg) lidocaine) 15 Continuous epidural infusion RCTs 7 days
Kasture and Saraf 2015 [12] India 67.2/67.5 12/15 40 300 ml of 0.125% bupivacaine with 5 ml ketorolac injection 35 Continuous epidural infusion (300 ml of 0.125% bupivacaine with 300 mcg fentanyl injection) RCTs 1 month
Klasen et al. 1999 [13] Germany 70/69 0/0 10 Single infiltration (1 mg morphine diluted in 20 ml of saline 0.9%) 10 Continuous epidural infusion (boluses of 2.5 mg of morphine) RCTs 2 months
Spreng et al. 2010 [14] Norway 67.2/65.8 30/41 37 Single-shot intraoperative peri-articular infiltration (ketorolac 30 mg and morphine 5 mg) 33 Continuous epidural infusion (ropivacaine 150 mg and epinephrine 0.5 mg added to isotonic saline) RCTs 16 days
Tsukada et al. 2014 [15] Japan NS NS 50 Single-shot intraoperative peri-articular infiltration 61 Continuous epidural infusion RCTs NS
Tsukada et al. 2015 [16] Japan NS NS 37 Single-shot intraoperative peri-articular infiltration 33 Continuous epidural infusion RCTs 6 months